Pursuing natural health & thinking beyond the superficial. Deconstructing Culture.

Great post below and comments, I’m not advocating anything, I don’t agree with all the points, I think it depends on the person(s) and their situation but it’s a well put summary; there’s tons of in depth articles, evidence and related links on that site.

And which reminds me of all the people on the journey we make and shops/places we go in to using the name of the ‘other’ I’m associated with lately such when walking the 1.5mile lane before the junction to the other 1.5-2 mile walk (which includes the highstreet) where residents, pedestrians and labourers have taken to saying his name as we walk past, two examples being:

18.07.16 as soon as we came up the two builders stopped:

“Who’s a singer with _______ in their name?”

“There’s _______ ________, that’ll do.”

“Yeah that’ll do.”

04.07.16 we randomly decided to go into Waitrose but it was obvious whilst we were walking there and the til/checkout person (who we’ve never seen before/don’t know and it’s a big superstore) goes to us:

“Ah you’re the ______ sister’s aren’t you?” [referring to sports celebrities, whom we look nothing like and we’re not sisters but their names were the important thing]

“Excuse me?”

“You know ______ and ______” [both of which have goddess names]

*Laugh* “I’d like to be as strong as them”

To which he put his head down and went quiet and during the monetary exchanged touched my hand as much as possible.

————–

Also the cars honking (nothing new) but one of which called my name first.

————–

It doesn’t end, it never ends, for some people it’s lifelong so you have to find ways to live/deal with it.

[AYT] Sensitization (and Why it Works so Well)

http://www.zersetzung.org/mind-control/ayt/ayt-articles/61-temp/ayt-articles/336-ayt-sensitization-and-why-it-works-so-well

are-you-targeted-original-logo

Notice: This section of the website contains a selection of articles that were salvaged from the old AreYouTargeted.com website just a few days before it was taken down by its author. The articles in this section are generally untouched and, as a result, still contain broken hyperlinks to the original (now defunct) AYT website. To view a complete list of the salvaged articles, click here or on the AYT “target” logo above. Tech-savvy viewers can download a raw backup of the old AYT website here. Finally, make sure you don’t miss AYT creator Jeremy’s podcasts about modern mind control and targeting tactics, available here and at the current AYT website.

Posted by jeremy on January 24, 2011 6:38 pm.

Sensitization
How a stimulus is made significant
Stimuli targets get sensitized to, and how they’re all alike
Objectives; and, observations
Common pitfalls
Beating sensitization

Organized harassment can be thought of as psychological manipulation, psychological torture, or even brainwashing. Sensitization is an important tool of manipulation, and often one of the very first steps in a campaign of organized harassment.

Sensitization involves making a target audience aware that a certain stimulus – a sound, shape or color, for example – is significant. This stimulus becomes part of a secret language shared between the target audience and the persons using the stimuli.

How a stimulus is made significant

Sensitization’s primary purpose is to make it possible to manipulate or provoke the target audience, deniably…

Pay attention to me: a person may go out of his way to draw your attention to the stimulus. Or, someone may display obvious aggression (again, catching your attention) while delivering the stimulus: the honking of a car horn; an article of clothing; his ethnicity; and so on.

Repetition: the stimulus may occur far more often than chance allows.

Doing it to yourself: when trying to “catch the stalkers”, for example, you may study the license plates of cars that seem to be involved. In this example, you’re training yourself to pay attention to license plate codes, setting yourself up for disturbing exposures later.

Stimuli targets get sensitized to, and how they’re all alike

-Particular kinds of automobiles: white vans/trucks; red autos; police cars.
-Particular ethnicities or ‘types’ of people.
-Strategically-placed pieces of trash.
-Loud noises: gun shots; explosions in the distance; sirens.
-Lights: brighting from passing cars; parked cars which have their lights on; sudden flashing sirens on police vehicles.  – Numerological themes: double digit numbers, such as 11, 22, or 44; particular times of day, such as 9:11; or a ‘personal’ number.
– Car signals: car alarms going off; chirping noises from a car being remotely unlocked repeatedly and unnecessarily; honking (or patterns of honking).
– Communications devices: cell phones, radios, portable music players with ear buds.
– Colors or images.

There are a wide variety of possible stimuli, but there’s one characteristic they all share: they’re all extremely common. This strategy serves a few purposes.

The stimuli the target has been sensitized to will be available in a wide variety of scenarios, to be used at a moment’s notice.

It’s easy to deny. These stimuli could come from any number of sources with no obvious connection to a psychological warfare campaign.

The target can expect to encounter the stimulus repeatedly, and he may end up right where his harassers want him – grappling with demons that his own mind has created, imagining total innocents to be ‘in on it’.

Objectives; and, observations

Sensitization is great for covert operations involving illegal or quasi-legal activity, with ‘buffers’ to shield higher-ups from the consequences of what their henchmen do. (Deniability is a good buffer.) This tactic is a good fit for intelligence organizations.

Once sensitized, the target audience is in a position to receive secret messages which the general public will not notice. In short, sensitization’s primary purpose is to make it possible to manipulate or provoke the target audience, deniably.

For a targeted individual, the provocation comes from the disturbing manner in which stimuli are delivered. The manipulation comes from what the TI is led to believe the placement, frequency, and timing of the stimuli must mean.

You may have drawn several conclusions from the sounds and sights you were exposed to, and their context. But you’ve never been told those conclusions directly; you were allowed to believe them.

In principle, there’s nothing wrong with sending or receiving secret messages; however, you should only act on secret messages as a peer, not as a minion scurrying about trying to divine the will of unseen or even imagined masters. If you form opinions or act on the basis of these messages without knowing their significance, you’re a puppet in the hands of the messages’ originators.

To restore your free will and counter the manipulative nature of the secret messages, you have to know what you’re being asked to do. Without that knowledge – and you’re never going to know by what “they” tell you – you might as well learn to ignore the messages.

Common pitfalls

Trap #1: mental illness trap
A person who has been sensitized should be careful in complaining about the stimuli. Ill-considered complaints will support a psychiatric diagnosis of delusions of reference (a delusional belief that common events refer to the complainant).

Trap #2: gathering ‘evidence’
Having had his eyes opened to a secret world, or so he imagines, a targeted individual or member of a targeted audience may seek to gather proof with which to win the public over. By obsessively searching for instances of the stimuli to document, the person is playing into his manipulators’ hands – he’s hyper-sensitizing himself to the stimuli.

Beating sensitization

There are three basic approaches to teaching yourself to ignore the provocations associated with secret messages.

Over-exposure.

– By deliberately over-exposing yourself to the stimuli, you’ll become desensitized to them.
– Move to an area where you can expect to experience the stimulus frequently.
– Play audio stimuli in a portable music player.
– Watch visual stimuli in movies, or scatter them all over the place.
– If the stimulus is time-themed, you could set a computerized alarm to go off during those times.

Public confrontation.

If the use of a stimulus is obvious and in public (usually involving an actor), draw peoples’ attention to it – but don’t be predictable about this.

For example, when I was having lunch with another TI in a cafeteria, a beggar entered the room and headed directly for our table, ignoring everyone else, and asked me for change. I exclaimed loudly, “Did you see that? The beggar didn’t go anywhere else– just my table. This happens all the time!”

If you’re willing to be confrontational, but you’re also unpredictable about it, you can expect the tactics you’re exposing to be dropped.

Avoidance.

This strategy is not recommended, but if you feel that a particular ethnicity or type of person has it in for you, it can be very hard to convince yourself otherwise until you’ve had a respite. Try finding some place to live where you’re not going to run into them. (If you’re moving into an apartment building, you could request as a condition of your lease that if any of the next door neighbors are a nuisance, you have the right to move out immediately.)

—————————————————————————————————————————————

In no particular order:

1) Meat off a hook, hanging on tenterhooks – oops I mean ‘Garudan Thookam’:

Aka – insulting the root Goddess, as usual, and doing it through torture.

http://artkerala.weebly.com/garudan-thookam.html

Garudan Thookkam (Eagle Hanging) is a ritual art form performed in Kali temples of south Kerala. The people who dress up as Garuda perform the dance. After the dance performance, the hang-designate dangle from a shaft hooking the skin on his back. In some places, the ritual is performed colorfully with Garudas taken in a procession on bullock carts or boats or hand pulled carts. It will be available in Devi temple during the festival of Meena bharani and Pathamudayam in Thiruvanchoor in Kottayam district. During the ritual, the performer — with face painted green, and body complete with attached wings and red beak — undertakes a special dance. Following this, he strategically inserts a metal hook into his back and swings from a connected rope, wings outstretched. The blood that the performer sheds is viewed as an offering to the goddess.

Legend has it that even after slaying Darika, Kali remained insatiable and thirsty. At this time Vishnu sent Garuda to Kali to quench the thirst. A dancing and bleeding Garuda was taken to Kali and only after getting some drops of blood from Garuda, Kali was pacified. The ritual is performed based on this belief.

There is a famous Garudan Thookam at the Elamkavu Devi temple at Vadayar in Vaikkom taluk of Kottayam district. During the Aswathi, Bharanthi days of Meenam Month (Malayalam), more than 40 to 50 numbers of Garudan in the Thooka chadus, decorated and floated in thoni vallams (big country-boats), travel behind the Attuvela – a wooden structure constructed in the form of a three storied building which is considered as the floating temple of the Goddess Kali in the Moovattupuzha river. This is one of the best sights, with illuminated Structures. After the night long performance with the help of scores of chenda experts, the Garudans – bleeding after the Choondakuthal (Piercing of the skin on their back with a sharp metal hook) will be hung on a tall pedestal-like structure and taken thrice around the temple by the devotees. This is seen at the Pazhaveedu temple at Alappuzha district. But here the performance is done on a chariot-like structure on the road.

Garudan Thookkam 2

How much cocaine you on boys?

How much cocaine you on boys?

Want a whipping with that?

Want a whipping with that?

Oh what fun. Howabout a maypole, make it sexual too and we can swing you round and round.

Oh what fun. Howabout a maypole, make it sexual too and we can swing you round and round.

Taking the piss is more like it, as Hinduism or new/Post-Vedic Hinduism did when it amalgamated and took over/usurped. The same goes human/animal sacrifice and beating women/children before the Goddess (the real Goddess thank you very much, none of the shitty little wannabes that came after, I’m looking at you traitor ‘snake’ bitches Durga, Laxmi and Saraswati) because men beating women and children in the name of Kali is really what the protector of the innocent (i.e. moreso human women & children and other animals in general) would condone. That’s just the same as people who rape them before the Goddess or any ‘goddess’ especially Mother Goddesses to say ‘hey look what I’m doing, what are you going to do about it? Hahaha.’

Now if it were the ‘real’ Garuda I would not be so against it and if it were ‘Vishnu’ hell yeah string the bastard up now! But wannabes and sacrifices/proxies? I know you’re cheap, but We’re priceless. I’m against sacrifice.

2) Throw your babies off a 50ft tower for good luck (Hindu and Muslim)

Yeah it’s been going on over half a millenium. In the spirit of animal mothers who throw their babes off everything from cliffs to ice bergs to see if they survive? Whilst I’ve never been keen on that design specification, the human version is not to show them the trials of life by throwing them off the ‘deep end’ (and hoping they don’t remember it) – it’s for something in return i.e. luck, prosperity/success etc all that material garbage. They catch them in a net, so that makes it ok…

I won’t post a picture, the men above quasi-not-really-too-stupid-to-know-better-but-will-do-anything-to-get-ahead chose to hang themselves in that unusual way. The kids didn’t.

3) Wasting [vegetarian] food even whilst poor.

Doing stupid things for material compensation/materialism is the norm (and also for lust based love rather than actual love) but there’s also living vicariously/basking in the glow/achievement or in this case pointless inherited status of others. In this case Brahmins (by default rather than say by meritocracy, there’s tons of ‘brahmin’ families who stick to the title, have done nothing to earn it, act like their ancestors achievements are theirs and are greedy, rich folk when priests are supposed to be poor or at least conscientious) and their leftovers. Now I might be a ‘poison taster’ (and multiple time survivor, I’m tough) for my Mum and finisher of the leftovers/everything that She makes but doesn’t want, doesn’t like, makes en masse but changes her mind and can’t be bothered with and I’ll have to finish it even if its about to go off (and put on weight because of the extra) but hey I’ve asserted my rights lately and she finishes her damned food now (now if only the cat would do the same) but I never used to roll around in it first…

Seriously, there’s a practice where people roll around on the leftovers of Brahmins (who technically are supposed to have what is offered to them, not the other way round) for good luck etc. Some people will do anything. The art of rolling is actually really good for you and significant but on food? Why not just bathe in the mud and get it over with, at least you’ll have massively clean skin afterwards. I can understand not sharing food or not wanting people too close or touching you – that’s an energy thing (and contamination thing) – but their food is so holy that you roll around in it?

Rolling in leftover Brahmin food

Some places are trying to alter this by making it untasted food, but people want what they want.

4) Females are inferior but we’ll make you even moreso by saying you’re not only unclean, you’re possessed too (or we’ll make sure you’re possessed first by a contract/ritual so that we can say that) and then we’ll degrade and desecrate you further but exorcising you via bestiality, if we like you a tiny bit maybe a tree marriage.

Girls, women, ladies, if you have any kind of deformity, anything unattractive, any kind of undesirable behaviour (damn that means me then on maximum impact) then you might have to marry an animal or a tree before having the honour of an arranged marriage to man you don’t know/like/want anyway. It’s like how the medical profession in Britain used to call behaving in any way males and evil enabler females decided was unladylike then you had a disease or physical (usually genital) problem to be treated or operated on.

Since when was marriage about love?

Exorcism-by-Marriage

Man’s best friend.

Who comes up with this trash? Oh yeah, power hungry secret keepers. It’s ridiculous how people don’t stand up for each other though or for those who try to help them, preferring their victimizers.

It’s hard to even know who they are and they’re persecuted too.

Rape is not insignificant nor a misdemeanor, it’s an unacceptable and unforgivable crime; and the numbers are higher than reported. Many parents and families sell their children or branches/specific lines of their children into all kinds of things. Ultimately its prostitution/abuse but there’s all kinds whether it be a rent-a-bride (buying a girl for a night, calling her a wife so that makes it ‘ok’ and bringing her back the next day), a rent-a-boy (marrying another male isn’t acceptable, just raping them is), obvious prostitution, ritual abuse, supernatural/cult abuse, invocation to be a host/attaché which is a lifelong attachment and can pass down to the next set of children, trauma inducing, bestiality, experimentation, near-death and death. Hey at least if something eats you [quickly] all it can do is kill you, better than torturing you for life, the ‘afterlife’ and your descendants. Then of course there’s the issue of migrants/immigrants and prisoners (though many think of them as interchangeable) I can think of one prominent world ‘country’ (that thinks itself the if not a world centre) that it allows its prison guards/soldiers a number of rapes per foreign/other religion female prisoner per guard. Don’t think that it’s certain countries and religions that do this, people are people no matter where they are, what they look like, how rich/poor they are. It’s not more or less in dependent on how wealthy or ‘educated’ the country is nor the colour of the people or the dominant belief systems. Also people who’ve been raped as children are often still abused well into adulthood – once they’re in it’s almost impossible to get out and predators can spot/sport them at a distance.

However some places are just like ‘open season’ e.g. war torn places, disaster ridden places, places with ‘peacekeepers’. Africa as a continent (not even specific areas) has long been a hell-hole when it comes to mass exploitation from within and without, wars, resource grabbing, pharmaceutical testing and dumping, corruption (well obviously), and basically not giving a crap about each other either.

Failed by courts, children bear brunt of rape in Ivory Coast: activists

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-ivorycoast-sexcrimes-idUSKCN10128N

By Kieran Guilbert

DAKAR (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Children in Ivory Coast bear the brunt of sexual violence in a culture where rape is widely considered “insignificant” and perpetrators usually go unpunished, activists say.

Two in three rape victims in the West African nation are young girls, according to a recent U.N. report, which recorded some 1,130 cases of rape between 2012 and 2015.

Yet the number of rape cases is likely to be far higher, the U.N.’s Ivory Coast mission (UNOCI) said, as many victims do not come forward due to the fear of retaliation and stigma within their communities and a lack of confidence in the legal system.

While Ivory Coast has recovered from two civil wars, in 2002 and 2011, to boast one of Africa’s fastest growing economies, years of conflict have fueled a culture of violence, where rape is rife, according to the UNOCI.

“Rape is considered banal by a lot of people, they claim sex is an obligatory rite of passage for every woman,” said Jean Claude Kobena of the Abidjan-based group SOS Violences Sexuelles.

“They think no one should be imprisoned for an act they see as so insignificant,” he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual violence because so many roam the streets, out of school and forced to work because of widespread poverty, child rights experts say.

Almost half of the 20 million population of Ivory Coast live in poverty, and six out of every 10 children of secondary school age are not in education, according to data from the World Bank.

“Millions of kids are out of school and on the streets, relying on odd jobs to survive, which exposes them to abuse and rape,” said Save the Children’s country director Famari Barro.

NO MORE ‘MISDEMEANORS’

Rape victims and their families are often not aware of how to report the crime, or cannot afford to do so, activists say.

Victims may have to travel far to a court, and they must first obtain a medical certificate – which can cost up to 50,000 CFA francs ($85) – to prove they have been raped before pressing charges, said the United Nations children’s agency (UNICEF).

Most rape cases in Ivory Coast are therefore settled out of court, usually without the victim’s consent, with the intention of avoiding stigma and preserving peace within communities, and sparing the suspected rapist from jail, the UNOCI’s report said.

“For victims to seek justice, the culture of settlements must end, allowing them to speak up and be referred to support services,” said UNICEF deputy representative Christina de Bruin.

While investigations were opened in 90 percent of rape cases documented by the UNOCI, less than a fifth led to a conviction.

In all 203 cases that ended in conviction, the perpetrators were found guilty of a lesser offense than rape – often indecent assault – which is a common legal practice, the report said.

“Although seen as a way for victims to access justice and facilitate a prompt judgment, this practice minimizes the gravity of rape,” the UNOCI said.

Ivory Coast should revise its criminal code, which punishes rape without defining it, provide victims with free legal aid and hold special court sessions for rape cases, the UNOCI said.

The justice ministry this week in a confidential document seen by the Thomson Reuters Foundation issued a notice telling the authorities not to recategorize rapes as ‘misdemeanors’.

Issued a week after the UNOCI report, it also says sexual offences must be fully investigated and prosecuted, even if out-of-court settlements are reached or complaints are withdrawn.

The Ivorian government spokesman did not respond to requests for comment.

“Children have the right to be protected from these criminal acts which can cause lifelong incurable wounds,” said de Bruin.

($1 = 596.8100 CFA francs)

(Reporting By Kieran Guilbert, Editing by Ros Russell; Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women’s rights, trafficking, corruption and climate change. Visit news.trust.org)

El Nino driving child marriage and labor across southern Africa: agencies

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-africa-drought-children-idUSKCN10023K

By Katy Migiro

NAIROBI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Tens of thousands of children across southern Africa are being pushed out of school and into early marriage or child labor because of drought and hunger caused by the El Nino weather pattern, charities said on Wednesday.

Southern Africa has been hard hit over the past year by an El Nino-inspired drought that has wilted crops, slowed economic growth and driven food prices higher.

Increased numbers of children are trading sex and doing domestic work to survive across nine countries, a report by World Vision, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and Plan International said.

“El Nino’s impacts are worsening the lives of children in a number of areas with many facing sexual exploitation, violence, child labor and psychosocial distress,” World Vision UK’s child rights expert Tracy Shields said in a statement.

Children have become separated from their families as they leave home to find work or food, the report said.

More than 60 million people, two thirds of them in east and southern Africa, are facing food shortages because of droughts linked to El Nino, a warming of sea-surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, according to the United Nations.

The arrival of La Nina, a weather pattern which usually bringing floods to southern Africa, could worsen the situation, the U.N. has said.

Meteorologists predict a 50 to 75 percent chance of La Nina developing in the second half of this year.

Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Swaziland and Zimbabwe have declared national drought emergencies.

South Africa has declared a drought emergency in eight of the country’s nine provinces, while Mozambique has declared an alert for some southern and central areas.

Southern Africa has a three-month window of opportunity before the 2016/2017 planting season, to take urgent measures to prevent millions of rural families becoming dependent on humanitarian assistance in 2018, the U.N. has said.

(Reporting by Katy Migiro; Editing by Alex Whiting; Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women’s rights, trafficking, property rights and climate change. Visit news.trust.org to see more stories.)

Child rape: U.N. pot calls the kettle black in Ivory Coast

Child rape: U.N. pot calls the kettle black in Ivory Coast

By Tom Murphy on 15 July 2016

The headline from a new U.N. report says that the rate of rape remains high and that the perpetrators are eluding justice. Ironically, it is not about U.N. peacekeepers and foreign forces, but about the west African country Ivory Coast.

According to the United Nations Operation inCôte d’Ivoire report, in the five years since the country returned to peace, rape remains a prevalent problem, with children representing more than half of the 1,129 cases recorded between 2012 and 2015.

“Côte d’Ivoire in recent years has recorded significant progress in terms of human rights, but the persistence of rape and impunity towards their perpetrators remain of serious concern and requires urgent action,” said Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, U.N. high commissioner for human rights in a media statement marking the report’s release.

The statement has a familiar ring to it. The U.N. made similar statements in March after yet another round of revelations that peacekeepers sexually abused the people they were meant to protect in the Central African Republic. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said he was “shocked to the core” by the news.

“Our focus must be on the victims and their families. We are talking about women and young children who have been traumatized in the worst imaginable way,” said Ban in a statement at the time. “These crimes only fester in silence. That is why the United Nations is shining a spotlight on these despicable, depraved and deeply disturbing allegations. I will continue to be unrelenting in confronting this scourge and raising it proactively at every opportunity.”

The common thread is a lack of accountability. According to this new report, authorities investigated more than 90 percent of the cases, but the conviction rate was lower than 20 percent. Cases that did go to trial and yielded convictions were for lesser offenses, reportedly to speed up justice, “[minimizing]the gravity of rape.”

The U.N. body said its prime concern is protecting children, and recommended taking “all necessary measures to bring to justice and punish all perpetrators of rape, particularly against children.”

The strongly worded statements to the Ivory Coast included advice the U.N. itself should heed. France announced Thursday that it would end its three-year military operations in the Central African Republic. Its controversial tenure was marked by accusations of rape and sexual abuse by French soldiers, who are unlikely to face criminal charges any time soon and might not be punished at all.

If soldiers from a country with strong judicial institutions are unlikely to be held accountable for their crimes, what chance is there that peacekeepers from developing countries will be brought to justice? The very same problems that influence impunity in the Ivory Coast are at play with peacekeepers.

——————————————————————————–

Many people think of UN peacekeeper violations as isolated events and like many soldiers in general i.e. tools of mass destruction they don’t care and get away with it, it’s part of the job. Being potentially raped by their own is part of the job too. Who do you trust? They’re just people and under stress they do terrible things, others don’t need stress just half an opportunity/temptation regardless of potential consequences, especially if there aren’t any.

If you had a price, what do you think you’d be ‘worth’? If you were selling yours or someone else’s kid or anybody of any age – what would you do it for, an end to poverty, an end to a situation in your family, big time success, just because you don’t like the person, because they’re a cute little thing, because you want to groom them into something else, a rite of passage, bragging rights, to show loyalty to a group/clan, to please a spirit/other being/god? There’s lots of reasons and not everybody needs the push the become a shove.

Oh and btw I really dislike the way the emancipation of women in general has been used to make them more easily accessible, and then those using the Mother Goddess ancient root cultures and the use/abuse of those through freemasonry/and secret societies for their own sick and twisted desires/ends. As for the rise of the [political/economic/business] ‘women’ (men in drag is more like it, they’re weren’t made to be Feminine, they’re just female), they’re not new, influential women have been involved for ages but these matriarchs in the male dominated scene pretending to pass for goddesses or holy women? The latest UK ‘battle’ for Prime Minister between Mother and Daughter (non-Mother) figure wannabes, with the ‘Daughter’ winning = pretender trash who don’t even know most of the time when they’re being yanked or sat in but still lurve being pawns because they’re disposed to it.

It doesn’t matter where you’re from, what you look like, what class you are etc the behaviours are essentially the same and don’t change, haven’t changed, time and time and time again. And trying to keep it going/do it again!?!? No.

Iran/Contra pt. 3 WACL
Beyond Iran Contra part 3: The Origins of the World Anti-Communist League

http://anti-imperialist-u.blogspot.co.uk/2016/07/irancontra-pt-3-wacl.html

(Parts 1 & 2:
http://anti-imperialist-u.blogspot.com/2016/05/irancontra-pt-1-secret-team.html
http://anti-imperialist-u.blogspot.co.uk/2016/06/irancontra-pt-2-world-war-3.html)

With a Special Thanks to @arrghshell of https://n0p3.net

On February 28 1986 Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme was gunned down in the streets while returning home with his wife after a movie. His killers were never brought to justice. Palme was a victim of the World Anti-Communist League or WACL. Palme had defied the American Empire one too many times. First he angered the empire by opposing the war in Vietnam enraging the Nixon administration by marching in solidarity with the North Vietnamese ambassador and in opposition to the genocidal war being waged on the people of Vietnam in the name of stopping the spread of communism. He further angered the empire by his friendly ties to Castro’s Cuba and Allende’s Chile (later overthrown by fascists.) But it was his interference in the Iran Contra schemes that finally got him killed. Palme maintained friendly ties with the Sandinista’s in Nicaragua providing vital assistance in holding their elections. He had also blocked an deal to Iran from the Bofors arms firm being delivered via another of Secret team member Richard Secord’s CIA front companies. In response Olof Palme was gunned down by WACL and because of WACL’s ties to Swedish intelligence the killers were never brought to justice.

However thanks to the work of investigative journalist Henrik Kruger we know the killer was probably Miro Baresic aka Tony Saric a Croatian Fascist who had been convicted of torturing the Yugoslavian ambassador to Sweden to death. After being convicted of that crime “escaping” and then being recaptured Baresic was freed along with other Ustashe Terrorists like Jozo Damjanovic when the Ustashe Hijacked a Swedish airliner and threatened to blow it up with all 86 passengers if Sweden refused to release them. He was flown to Fascist Spain which was also the base for the Nazi underground lead by Otto Skorzeny “Hitler’s favorite commando” turned mercenary and arms merchant. Baresic was imprisoned briefly for appearances sake but Spain refused to send him back to Sweden instead sending him to Paraguay another Fascist safe haven Baresic had then found employment like many former Ustashe (the Croatian fascist party) with the regime of genocidal Paraguayan Dictator Alfredo Stroessner who offered refuge and employment to many fascist war criminals and had a private bodyguard of Ustashe killers. Jozo Damjanovich would “accidentally” assassinate the Uruguayan ambassador to Paraguay supposedly mistaking him for the Yugoslavian ambassador. Baresic became the right hand man of Condor operative and CIA man Pastor Coronel like all Condor leaders a sadistic torturer and murderer. The US turned a blind eye when Baresic began working for the Paraguayan embassy in Washington, DC. However they were forced to deport him when two FBI agents not in on the secret of America’s alliance with Fascists and terrorists became suspicious of Baresic after he won a Karate tournament (Actually many martial arts schools are sponsored by WACL) and raced around the auditorium with a Croatian flag. They decided to find out who he was and were shocked to discover he was an internationally wanted terrorist and assassin. Embarrassed the US government sent him back to Sweden to stand trial. However instead of receiving harsh punishment he was treated like a celebrity, given a suitcase full of cash and frequently allowed to leave the prison including on the day of the Palme assassination. Thus the assassination of Olof Palme revealed the existence of an international fascist conspiracy. WACL provided the links between Croatian fascists, Swedish Fascists, Paraguayan Fascists.

Yet this is only the tip of the Iceberg when it comes to WACL. WACL is undoubtedly one of the most important organizations that most people have never heard of. WACL played a far greater role in history then anyone (with the exception of researcher Dave Emory) ever realized. It was closely connected to the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the death of JFK, the string of coups that swept Latin America for decades and has after a brief interruption begun to sweep latin america again. It was involved in the wars in Angola and Mozambique. WACL members founded and lead the Latin American death squads that claimed hundreds of thousands of victims. WACL was instrumental in both the start of the “cold war” and it’s end with the destruction of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. WACL helped get Nixon, Reagan and Bush into office. WACL was tied to terror attacks, Hijackings, bombings and assassinations. It was deeply involved in the global drug trade. It served to keep Fascism alive after it’s defeat in world war 2. After the destruction of the USSR it was vital in spreading fascism throughout eastern Europe from the Baltic to Yugoslavia although until Ukraine few noticed and sadly even after Ukraine people still aren’t paying attention. Under the umbrella of WACL were many of the most infamous CIA operations like Operation Paperclip and related ops aimed at recruiting Nazis and other Fascists, The Phoenix Program, Operation Condor, Operation Gladio. The Escaped Nazis and Fascists as well as some of the key players in the Phoenix Program, GLADIO, and Condor were often also WACL members. In other words WACL was the perfect CIA front group uniting “all the evils of the world” as I called it after witnessing the coup in Ukraine. Like the Ukraine coup WACL united “respectable” western politicians with outright fascists. Ronald Reagan who was both a “respectable” politician (Ie a bloodthirsty imperialist) and a crypto-fascist said of WACL “Your Dream is Our Dream, Your Hope is our Hope.” Then he shook the hand of Ukrainian Fascist War Criminal and WACL member Yaroslav Stetsko. With the destruction of the USSR their dream was fulfilled but under a new name (The Hilariously Orwellian World League for Freedom and Democracy) WACL continued it’s same role a nightmare for everyone else reinstalling fascist regimes in places like Croatia and Ukraine. If today we are faced with a second cold war it is largely thanks to the continuing legacy of WACL.

To use Ukraine as an example of the decades long impact of WACL one needs only study the Dobriansky family. Lev Dobrainsky was chairman of the ABN the (Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations) an important umbrella group within WACL uniting all the groups who had fought for the Nazis and dreamed of carving up the USSR so they could regain control of the territories they had controlled or hoped to control during world war 2. Reagan appointed Lev Dobriansky ambassador to the Bahamas doubtless for the purpose of money laundering, drug trafficking, (Why else send a Ukrainian Fascist to the Bahamas during the Iran contra era?) and possibly even involvement with the WACL linked death squad school Mitch Werbell had founded there. His Daughter Paula Dobriansky became a top Reagan foreign policy adviser. Now Andrij Dobrianksy who I assume is Lev’s Grandson (I found him by accident on twitter) is running a propaganda campaign on behalf of the fascist Ukraine junta and against the Russians. Another famous Ukrainian Fascist and top WACL member was Yaroslav Stetsko he was given a top leadership role despite his well documented role in carrying out genocidal war crimes against jews, Russians, poles, gypsies, and of course Ukrainians. Only one of many war criminals in WACL’s ranks although the Ukrainians were one of the most powerful and influential groups in WACL dominating the ABN.

Ukrainian fascists were only one of many sinister elements involved with WACL although they held a particularly prominent role. WACL united Latin American Death Squads, Croatian and Cuban Terrorists, Japanese Gangsters, the Moonies bizarre and dictatorial sex cult, Scientific racists, Waffen SS veterans. high ranking Nazis, Saudi Princes, supporters of apartheid in South Africa and Rhodesia, supporters of America’s Jim Crow apartheid (well into the 19880’s) , Corsican Gangsters, KMT drug dealers, Right wing Asian, Latin American, European and Middle Eastern and African Dictators, Italian and Mexican Secret Societies, Bishops, priests, ministers, generals, Special forces vets, military men, spies, secret police, mainstream western politicians, academics, and journalists. And of course many of the “Secret Team” like Ray Cline, Theodore Shackley, Howard Hunt, and Lucien Conein were deeply involved in the creation and manipulation of WACL. Given this scandalous membership it is amazing that so few have ever bothered to investigate WACL. It sounds like something out of a bad movie plot but it was all too real.

WACL’s origins stretch back to the Russian Revolution nearly 100 years ago. Sidney Reilly the infamous British super-spy founded one of it’s precursors, the Anti Bolshevik league funded by American fascist Henry Ford and other rich Fascists who would go on to back hitler. Reilly who was actually a Ukrainian Jew by birth who grew up near the now infamous city of Odessa. (Ironic given his alliance with the virulently racist white Russians who often massacred any jews they could find during Russia’s civil war and long before) Reilly had risen to become Britain’s top agent and after the Russian October revolution they sent him to attempt to overthrow the revolution. He hoped to make himself a dictator like his idol Napoleon. Reilly ultimately failed but he was involved in spurring on the “Social Revolutionaries” terror campaign who’s victim’s included Lenin and the German Ambassador Mirbach and Reilly was also involved in a number of failed coup attempts. The revolutionary government eventually decided to have him arrested for his numerous crimes and plots but he narrowly managed to escape. He was sentenced to death in absentia. Outside he organized the “white Russian” emigres and their fascist supporters in a global anti-bolshevik league stretching across Europe and the Americas with branches as far away as Japan. These white Russians were the original gladio style stay behind network used as tools of the imperialist and fascist countries in their covert war on the Soviet Union.

In fact WACL has many origins most restrict the study of the group to the cold war era. The early history of the league is the history of the birth of fascism itself. Another fascinating forerunner of the league was the Promethean League organized by the Polish Fascist Marshall Jozef Pilsudski government which united the many of the same elements that are currently among Russia’s greatest enemies. Poland Ukraine and Turkey plus the entire turkic speaking population of Central Asia were to be organized through the Promethean League to wage war on the Soviet Union. After Nazi Germany conquered Poland it took over the promethean League as part of their eastern strategy or ostpolitik and eventually trained SS battalions of Ukrainians, Chechens, Crimean Tatars, and Azerbaijanis along with other soviet minorities. After the war the CIA would recruit this same network and for those paying attention their descendants are still being used to wage covert and open war on Russia.

Finally there was the Anti-Comintern Pact created by the Nazis and involving far more countries then most people remember. We have been trained to think of the Axis as only Italy, Japan and Germany. However this limited view is merely the residual effect of cold war propaganda. In Reality much of Central and Eastern Europe became Fascist before or during World War 2. However as the victorious Red Army marched west and overthrew the Fascist regimes in it’s path installing communist governments Britain and America began to pretend that these countries had been part of the “free world” instead of the fascist world so that they could convince their people that the Soviet Union was trying to conquer the world. A fact few besides Michael Parenti bother to point out. The same lies would be repeated around the world from fascist Taiwan and South Korea, to Guatemala, Indonesia, Chile, South Africa all no matter how repressive were part of the “free world.” It is no coincidence that these countries were all top WACL members as well. Of course this practice of labeling fascist countries as part of the “free world” continues into our own time most recently in the Fascist coup in Ukraine portrayed in the shameless western media as a triumph for democracy and “western values.”

In any case to return to the anti-comintern pact it united the fascist countries of Europe and Asia places like Hungary and Romania. In Romania there were the fanatical Iron Guard who not only killed their victims in the goriest manner imaginable they got so carried away that they would would on one memorable occasion dance, pray, cry and kiss in celebration amidst the mangled pieces of their victim. Their most gruesome crime involved using a literal slaughterhouse to hang their jewish victims by meathooks slaughter some of them in mockery of kosher butchers and skin other of their victims alive. During the cold war they took over the Romanian Orthodox church which made the SS men into bishops Nixon had war criminal turned Bishop Viorel Trifa lead the opening prayers of the senate in 1955. The Anti-Comintern pact also served to unite the many fascist movements of the world who were mobilized to spread propaganda. When Germany invaded Yugoslavia it created an independent Croatia that committed some of the worst atrocities of the war. They Installed Ante Pavelic as the Croatian Fuhrer or Poglavnik as he was called in Croatian. The Croatians targeted jews, gypsies, and all non Croatians of course but their most numerous victims were the serbs. In the midst of world war 2 and with the blessing of the Vatican they waged a fascist crusade against the orthodox serbs their motto was to kill a third convert a third and to force the final third to flee. They loved to save bullets by using knives to slice up their victims. They collected eyes as proof of their bodycount. In fact their crimes were so shocking even the some of the Nazis became disgusted. However after the end of World War 2 the Croatians would be a vital component of the ratline smuggling fascist war criminals to safety in the west. The Croatians would become one of the most powerful groups in WACL during the cold war and after the destruction of the soviet union would seize Croatia breakaway from Yugoslavia and ethnically cleanse hundreds of thousands of Serbs with the help of NATO and the mercenary firm MPRI. There were also of course the Ukrainians like Stephen Bandera, and Mykola Lebed who ordered their followers to join the Waffen SS and vied with the Croatians in their gory savagery one of their specialties was the use of saws to dispatch their victims. Their were Latvians like Waffen SS death Squad leader Alfred Berzins. There were Belorussians, Hungarians, Romanians, Estonians, Lithuanians and many more fascists who formed Nazi death squads and then went on to form the membership of WACL’s ABN branch the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations. There was a also an American Friends of the ABN group with branches in every major american city and a membership composed largely of escaped war criminals.

The Anti-Comintern also was allied to many groups in the west. France England, the United States, Latin America (especially Argentina) all had fascist movements united under the Anti-Comintern Pact. This western Fascism is another element suppressed from the history books. In the United States alone there were over 750 fascist groups by 1939. American Fascism was also closely tied in with supporters of American Apartheid system called Jim Crow and with the violent suppression of unions. It also often took a religious guise whether protestant fundamentalist christians or right wing Catholic demagogues like father Caughlin. It was backed by a large section the American Oligarchy people like Henry Ford (who inspired Hitler) or Irinay Dupont who had his own massive fascist paramilitary the Black Legion which killed labor organizers and targeted minorities it’s most famous victim was Malcolm X’s father. But of course the subject of American Fascism could fill a book on it’s own. So before ending this tangent I’ll only mention that one of these fascist groups the American Vigilance Committee of Harry Jung was a direct part of the Nazi Anti-Comintern pact and was the precursor to what was in many ways the most important American WACL branch the ASC (American Security Council) which inherited Jung’s list of 1 millions suspected subversives (and jews) which was used to draw up the McCarthy era blacklists. ASC became the most influential lobby on behalf of the military industrial complex. Overt American fascism didn’t end with the war or even with the triumph of the civil rights movement. During the Iran-Contra era 1980-1986 American Fascists Nazi’s, KKK, and other racist paramilitaries committed over 3000 acts of political violence. These groups had links to intelligence agencies and the police David Duke for example was definitely an FBI informant and probably a CIA agent given his involvement in Laos’s secret war. Many of these groups had links to WACL which was strongly supportive of racist groups in America and around the world. Roger Pearson, a “Scientific Racist” a Nazi, a Eugenist, a Segregationist would even head the american branch of WACL in the late 70’s.

So to review WACL’s precursors included the Anti-Bolshevik League founded by Sidney Reilly uniting the proto-fascist “White Russian” Counter Revolutionaries. The Promethean League which formed the template for Nazi recruitment of Ukrainians and Turkic fascists. The Grey wolves who made news last fall when they killed a russian pilot in Syria are direct descendants of this alliance. So are the Ukrainian fascists of today waging their genocidal war on Novorossia (The breakaway Donbass region of Ukraine) Incidentally the man responsible both for the Nazi trained Turkic legions and head of the Ukrainian waffen SS division (The Nachtingall division) was a man named Theodore Oberlander he would go on to be an important german WACL member after the war. Finally their was the International Anti-Comintern Pact which combined the worlds fascists countries and the worlds fascist movements into one giant organization absorbing both it’s precursors. For more on the precursors of WACL I highly recommend that subversive classic The Great Conspiracy by Michael Sayers and Albert E. Kahn which describes the 30 years of overt and covert war waged on the Soviet Union from the time of the October Revolution up until World War 2.

With the end of world war 2 the US would recruit General Gehlen the Nazi head of intelligence for the eastern front and along with him all of the surviving remnants of the forces that made up the anti-comintern pact. (See my June 2014 Article Nazis and the CIA for more on this topic it was Gehlen’s recruitment that sparked the Cold War he fed the west false intelligence of an imminent Soviet Invasion which they pretended to believe while at the same time the west used Gehlen to wage a bloody covert war on the soviets using his fascist network especially the Ukrainians who he managed for the OPC/CIA.

During the Cold War Three main branches of this fascist international would be regrouped into new CIC/CIA/OPC backed organizations. First the ACEN (The captive nations) which aimed at destroying communism in the countries of the Warsaw pact. Then there was the ABN the Anti-Bolshevik bloc of nations which went even further seeking to dismember the Soviet Union itself. This brought them into conflict with the NTS which aimed their efforts at appealing to Russians rather then minorities they were called Solidarists and they sought to convert Russia’s political and military elite to the cause of anti-communism. Their strategy would perhaps be most effective of all for by Gorbachev’s time all sorts of soviet government officials seemed bent on the destruction of socialism. The NTS had spent decades attempting to recruit any Russian allowed to travel abroad by that point. When the Gorbachev advisers disastrous market oriented policies had wrecked the USSR the ABN strategy of using nationalism to rip apart the Soviet Union came into effect. But of course this is skipping ahead. During the cold war nobody seemed to take these groups seriously and after the cold war ended they were all but forgotten. Yet a brief comparison of their strategies with what actually happened to the soviet union and afterwards reveal that by failing to investigate WACL historians have completely failed to understand the past 30 years of history. They have completely failed to investigate the real causes behind the most important event of our times the destruction of the USSR.

Of course it is no mystery why mainstream academia would seek to suppress the history of WACL. This alliance of fascists, gangsters, death squads, intelligence agencies is one huge scandalous embarrassment. This is what lead the authors of the book “Inside the League” to investigate them in the first place. They discovered the importance of the League during the 80’s when interviewing a Honduran death squad leader. He told them of a bizarre secret society which he believed was coordinating all the death squads of Latin America. They were known as the Tecos a Nazi secret society based in Mexico who’s symbol was the Owl.The Tecos had their Origins in the Cristeros during the Mexican Revolution recruited to battle all progress in the name of the catholic church. Later they would be regrouped into the Nazi Tecos by a Mexican bishop newly returned from Hitler’s Germany. Of course in reality the Latin American death squads were being managed ultimately by the pentagon and the CIA not the Tecos and were a standard tactic in all of America’s covert wars from the Philippines to Korea, Vietnam, Guatemala Colombia, Argentina and El Salvador to name only a few of the more notorious examples. However the weird Tecos were influential in shaping the ideologies of some of the Latin American Fascists and had close ties to the Guatemalans, the Argentines, and the Salvadorans. The Tecos believed that the Vatican had been taken over by a jewish-freemasonic-bolshevik conspiracy completely ignoring the tight ties between the Vatican and the Fascists especially the Germans, Italians, Croatians, Spain and Portugal. However with the growth of liberation theology among the low level clergy who began to side with the poor and to speak out against the endless atrocities of the “dirty wars” the Tecos beliefs could prove useful in justifying the torture and murder of those clergy who adopted liberation theology.

Beginning in Bolivia under the so called “Banzer Plan” clergy were increasingly targeted in the various dirty wars. WACL played a huge role in spreading the Banzer plan throughout Latin America the most famous victim was Archbishop Romero perhaps even more shocking was the rape and murder of four American Nuns in El Salvador by death squads backed by their own government which also attempted to cover up their murder. For those who study some of the bizarre gangs operating as part of Mexico’s Drug War clearly the Tecos also proved influential among the drug cartels. The Tecos had their own university the Autonomous University of Guadalajara AUG Tightly controlled by an inner circle of Tecos who kept all the students under constant surveillance for subversive thoughts. They even ran a death squad out of the school. The AUG was funded by big american foundations and supported by 13 mainstream american universities. Obviously the CIA was behind it why else would a nazi cult receive donations from USAID, the Rockefeller, and Ford Foundations among others. On a pop cultural note did the Tecos somehow inspire elements of “Fear the Walking Dead” which featured an ex El Salvadoran death squad member as a hero “We Had to do it!” he claims despite the fact that tiny El Salvador killed 75,000 of it’s people merely to preserve the riches of 13 oligarchical families and to keep the rest of the population in dire poverty to please their evil masters in the CIA and pentagon. I couldn’t help but wonder since season two was set Mexico and their were Owls eveywhere (Tecos is short for Tecolotes Owls in Spanish).

However the Tecos were only one element in the Latin American Branch of WACL known as CAL. Far more dangerous were for example the WACL branch in Guatemala lead by Mario Sandoval Alarcon the “Godfather of all the death squads”. Or his Protege in El Salvador Roberto D’Aubuisson the murderous “Major Bob” Often the death squads even went under WACL inspired names like “secret anti-communist army” In Argentina they were called AAA the Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance. Guatemala and Argentina would both be used by US intelligence to train latin American Death squads; who were usually interchangeable with the Police and Military, in the tactics of the dirty war. I’ll return to Latin America later Central America was where WACL would play it’s most public role under the leadership of “Secret Team” Member John Singlaub. Singlaub had been fighting America’s dirty wars for 30 years from Korea to Vietnam 10 years of his record were still classified during the 80’s but he had been in charge of the infamous SOG group the CIA managed special forces group that ran the secret war in Laos and the acted as advisers for the phoenix program.

It is the Asian branch of WACL that played the major role in the creation of the modern WACL. Just as on the the western front even before the end of the war the US and Britain were already working with the Fascists and preparing to launch the cold war so too in the east the US was already looking to recruit the Japanese and their collaborators to prevent Asia from slipping from the empires grip. Thankfully the peoples of China, North Korea and Vietnam would eventually win their independence installing communist regimes since they had been the ones who had fought first the western imperialists then the fascist Japanese and their traitorous allies (who the US would try to reinstall against the wishes of their own peoples) In China there was the KMT which had done little in the war against Japan instead concentrating on battling the communists. At wars end they accepted into their ranks the Chinese forces that had gone over to the Japanese making them even more hated. They were already despised for their corruption, cruelty and cowardice. Thus despite massive aid and even the huge number of American troops fighting in China the communists under Mao were victorious. The nationalists were forced to retreat to what is now Taiwan but was then known as Formosa. During the civil war the KMT had launched a brutal occupation of the island and in fact Taiwan is a sort of Israel of the East. The Native Formosans are denied all say in how their island is run and live under the brutal occupation of the KMT.

In South Korea the story was much the same the US installed elements that had collaborated with the Japanese in their brutal occupation. They only succeeded in installing SynghmanRhee because the ruthless dictator slaughtered all the opposition in South Korea. In indochina the US aided the French in their failed attempt to regain control of their colony. Then it sent the CIA to build up the Corrupt Ngo Dinh Diem Regime which slaughtered all it’s opposition setting up a corrupt puppet government. It was these three countries along with Japan which like Germany remained a fascist country underneath it’s democratic facade that were to found the asian branch of WACL in 1954 APACL from which WACL itself would grow in 1966. APACL was formed on the advice of secret team member Ray Cline. It was no doubt bankrolled with the profits of the huge asian heroin trade which the KMT controlled and which South Vietnam was also deeply involved in. South Korea would become involved in the drug trade through the Moonie Cult it ran as a front in conjunction with Japanese Fascist Gangsters and war profiteers Yoshio Kodama and his Patron Ryoichi Sasakawa both of course backed by the CIA. These two would control Japan’s one party “democracy” backing the corrupt Liberal Democractic Party in it’s decades long unchallenged rule of Japan. WACL’s asian drug connections would be exposed in the 70’s when a Laotian APACL delegate would be busted in Paris with 4 pounds of heroin in his suitcase.

The Moonies the nickname for Reverend Sun Myung Moon’s Unification church played a huge role in bankrolling WACL. It was backed by the Korean CIA, the Japanese Yakuza and doubtless the US CIA. It owns the Washington Times which it uses to spread right wing disinformation. Despite believing that Jesus was an utter failure and that Reverend Moon is the true Messiah who will save the world by having sex with his followers, it has many friends and allies on the christian right like Jerry Fallwell and Pat Robertson. It also controls a number of politicians with the seemingly bottomless funds which undoubtedly come from the drug traffic most authors like to pretend that their funding is a mystery but given their blatant role in Bolivia’s cocaine coup and their ties to the drug dealing contras as well as through WACL to the notorious KMT drug dealers, and the drug dealing Sasakawa and Kodama who ran a massive heroin ring out of Manchuria during WWII we can safely throw caution to the wind and solve the mystery of the moonies bottomless funding which allows them to run the Washington times at a 3 Billion Dollar loss and buy up american politicians. Some of this was exposed in a scandal during the 70’s and 80’s known as Koreagate. Moon is undoubtedly one of the stranger forces behind WACL. Robert Parry of Consortium news has done great work exposing them if you want to read more. Moons political front group CAUSA was deeply involved in backing death squads and in fact a co-author of inside the league observed that death squads often wore CAUSA t-Shirts.

It was APACL the Asian Branch of WACL that would publicly at least give birth to the modern WACL In 1966. Of Course the ABN was just as influential in the creation of WACL and in fact Yaroslav Stetsko was a frequent guest of Chiang Kai-Shek Taiwan’s drug dealing KMT dictator and was with other ABN members closely tied to APACL. APACL would be founded in 1954 in response to the end of the Korean war and the defeat of the french in Vietnam. The dictators Syngman Rhee, Chiang Kai Shek, and Ngo Dinh Diem would all be founding members with CIA man Ray Cline behind the scenes. It was formed to regroup these fascist forces in support of the CIA’s covert wars throughout southeast Asia which would evolve into the Vietnam War, The wars in Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand and would continue the Covert war on China. We can be certain that APACL helped bring these bloody wars which would claim millions of lives into being. APACL was used also to continue the work of the China lobby then mired in a bribery and corruption scandal. The same year of 1954 in the aftermath of the CIA coup that toppled Arbenz in Guatemala a latin American Branch was also formed. In attendance were Howard Hunt, Lucein Conein, and Mitch Werbell 3 of the most notorious “Secret Team” members. This Latin American branch would be used to organize the bloody reign of the death squads which would emanate out of Guatemala and El Salvador. Born out of past and future war criminals in conjunction with the machinations of the CIA WACL play a role in bringing untold bloodshed upon the world. In Indochina, in Central and South America, in Afghanistan, in Southern Africa WACL would be used to facilitate America’s bloody war on the planet what I call World War 3. And it would continue to play a role in shaping the events of world War 4 from Afghanistan to Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Syria and Turkey to name only some of the more obvious examples. WACL would even help give birth to Al Qaeda and in the 80’s the Saudi’s became major WACL sponsors.

However like my earlier Iran/Contra article I have taken so long introducing the World Anti-Communist League and explaining it’s origins that once again I must end with a to be continued.

Sources

For the Prehistory of WACL and other fascinating topics I relied on the classic “The Great Conspiracy” by Michael Sayers and Albert E Kahn. For WACL’s Modern History I relied on the misleadingly titled “Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads have Infiltrated The World Anti-Communist League” which is inaccurate since it would be more accurate to say they founded rather then infiltrated the league. It is a fascinating book although it tends to minimize the US role in being behind nearly everything. Finally Jonathan Marshall, Peter Dale Scott and Jane Hunter’s the Iran-Contra Connection also have an in depth discussion of WACL.

Here is “The Great Conspiracy” in E-Book Form

http://marxism.halkcephesi.net/Great%20Conspiracy/index.htm

Dave Emory the World’s Leading Anti-Fascist Researcher is the only one who has observed the role WACL has played in recent history.

This massive episode from Dave Emory and his then cohost Nip Tuck’s Anti-Fascist Archives traces the history of fascism in America from before World War 2 to the 1980’s when it was recorded.

http://spitfirelist.com/anti-fascist-archives/rfa-10-13-the-aryan-nations/

And these episodes deal with the World Anti-Communist League

WACL Part 1

http://spitfirelist.com/anti-fascist-archives/rfa-14-the-world-anti-communist-league-pt-1/

WACL Part 2

http://spitfirelist.com/anti-fascist-archives/rfa-15-the-world-anti-communist-league-pt-2/

A great Podcast By Dave Emory based on an Article by Hans Kruger about the WACL assassination of Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme

http://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-868-the-assassination-of-olof-palme-part-1/
And Here is part 2 on Olof Palme

http://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-869-the-assassination-of-olof-palme-part-2/

And This Dave Emory Podcast contains the mind blowing part of the WACL archive show dealing with the Promethean League plus a discussion of the killing of the Russian pilot by the Grey Wolves last fall

http://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-878-update-on-pan-turkism-islamism-and-the-earth-island-boogie/

The CIA’s own history of it’s relationship with Ukrainian Fascists ends by crediting the Ukrainian Emigres for contributing to the disintegration of the USSR

http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/1705143/STUDIES%20IN%20INTELLIGENCE%20NAZI%20-%20RELATED%20ARTICLES_0015.pdf

Robert Parry on the strange and sordid history of Sun Myung Moon and his Unification Church

http://www.consortiumnews.com/2006/122706.html

Robert Parry on Klaus Barbie

Hitler’s Shadow Reaches toward Today

So July 21/22 is the ‘real’ Summer Equinox (in the upper hemisphere), I’m not going to explain it to you, look it up and see to which people(s) it’s poignant, why and what they do, are scared of. I’m tired and have got better things to do, like I dunno, pretending to imagine watching paint dry.

Basically, during the Winter Solstice (My/The Daughter time) masons and masonic wannabes like to come up with scenarios where I or ‘we’ (my representatives/other people who live with/surround me) open the door for them; they’ll do anything, cause public arguments right outside, a domestic where the husband is locked out or ‘you owe me money’ beatdown type thing all so we’ll go and help them and/or let them in. Pathetic. Obviously I am both the door/communicator and the door keeper, the link.

However it means even more when they do it in Summer because that is the time of The Mother (Traditionally when Mother Goddesses actually have a Daughter – later Son – and not just those generically called Mother figures – the Daughter is abducted/married/somehow made dark/impure via masculinity/husbandry/sex etc and is associated with Winter but symbolically means she spends her time in multiple consciousness/more than one world. Otherwise the Mother is all the seasons. Summer and Winter both encapsulate Spring and Autumn, as we’ve been physically seeing for quite some time too). The 21st-22nd of any month have been favourite days for stupidity by local and imported/visiting masons wherever we’ve been in the last few years but prior to 2012 it was Winter. But finally they got to the Summer Equinox and on both days, just in case. On the 21st they metaphysically implied that I let in a ‘lawyer’ and not just any ‘lawyer’ to see Mum, he listened to everything that had happened/is being done to Her and decided he was going to do the same. Oh Hell no. He got shown the door in another way. Yesterday the physical door was knocked on and in reply we closed all the windows.

If you are someone special don’t let the f*ckers in (ever) but especially on those days, k?

“Rapunzel, Rapunzel let down your hair [so that I may climb the Golden [ratio] stair]” – the latest mind game phrase to refer to me.

No way jose!

P.S I prefer The Tower card not the ivory phallic tower/obelisk, plus the Witch makes far better company than you. And btw cabbages don’t symbolize kings (why you love planting them in your gardens as soon as you become our ‘neighbours’) and Rapunzel is not a shortened word form, it’s a longer form, why? The kings and false royalty in general have/are/were never any anything let alone a comparison to the real Queen [of Queens].

… Which translates into the same old same old corrupt pieces of sh*t in power, regime changes that ultimately mean nothing, usurpers and nothing really changing, just a lot of smoke. Two hands of the same body.

So this morning some fool was reminding me of Benazir Bhutto continuously.

Then there’s this chapter from Fire in the Minds of Men by James H Billington (funny isn’t it how you just showed an old acquaintance of Mum’s again the ‘lawyer’ who uses the pseudonym James Hadley as learning about and wanted to milk off her like the rest and having the gall to make out I introduced/brought him in as a ‘door’ would):

C H AP T ER 1 7

The Role of Women

LENIN’S Revolution in November 1 9 1 7 was mounted against a rival
revolutionary regime that had briefly and provisionally brought democracy
to Russia in the revolution of March 1 9 1 7. Lenin’s social revolution
was doomed to confinement in one country after the final defeat of the
attempt at revolution in Germany in January 1 9 1 9.

Women were central to both the original victory in St. Petersburg
and the final defeat in Berlin. Women had only slowly gained prominence
within the revolutionary tradition ; but they had assumed special
importance within the German and especially the Russian movement.
The March Revolution in St. Petersburg was triggered by a mass
demonstration for International Women’s Day. The January upheaval
in Berlin was ended by the murder of the only revolutionary personality
of the era to rival Lenin in stature : Rosa Luxemburg.

As in Brussels in August 1 830, so in St. Petersburg in March 1 9 1 7
a festive popular event had unintended broader consequences. Just as
an operatic performance had triggered a national revolution in 1 830,
so an essentially apolitical women’s demonstration started the chain of
events that led to social revolution in 1 9 1 7 . There is a kind of inner
logic in both cases. Romantic operatic melodrama was, as we have seen,
a symbol of and stimulus to the visceral c ause of national revolution.
The women’s cause, on the other hand, was equally linked to the more
rationalistic, rival tradition of social revolution.

For a final reprise on the story of revolutionaries without power, it
might thus be appropriate to turn to the role of women, a largely
powerless social group in nineteenth-century .Europe. Their slow emergence
to prominence in the broader revolutionary movement reflects
the gradual rise of social over national revolution, the replacement of
the Franco-Italian-Polish leadership by the German and Russian movements.
Women brought special strengths to these latter movements in
non-Catholic Europe-enabling each to become a total subculture capableof surviving repression, cooptation, and isolation by authoritarian
governments and hostile societies. Women became p articularly involved
in revolutionary events during the aftermath of World War I, producing
in Rosa Luxemburg perhaps the most authentically prophetic revolutionary
of the early twentieth century.

This discussion of the involvement of women in the revolutionary
traditions can only scratch the surface of a complex problem. Necessarily
excluded from our consistent focus on ideological innovators and
leaders are the great bulk of rank-and-file revolutionaries who happened
to be female, and of feminists who were more or less revolutionary.
At almost any given point throughout the period under consideration,
some women simply shared and echoed the political and
economic demands being advanced by men . Others sought to change
only the social role of women, who were still confined to fixed and
subordinate roles in the p atriarchal European family system. The former
group more or less passively accepted the agenda set by m ale revolutionaries
; the l atter group only occasionally and episodically identified with
the largely male revolutionary movement.

Our discussion will focus on a third c ategory : innovative feminine
revolutionaries, prophetic women who were both original and important
within the revolutionary movement. Such women often brought
to the broader movement a special aura of moral superiority, born in
part out of their very exclusion from power. Their criticism of European
society tended to be especially far-reaching, to point towards a
social revolution beyond local perspectives. On occasion, they went
even beyond the social dimension altogether to suggest new sexual,
cultural, and psychological dimensions for revolutionary thought. Because
these are subjects of renewed interest at present and of uncertain
significance for the future, this final retrospective look at revolutionary
origins will focus on women.

The French

As with so much else , the history of women revolutionaries begins in
the turmoil of the French Revolution. Thinkers in the Enlightenment
had concentrated largely on the limited question of how education
would improve the lot of women. 1 The otherwise proto-revolutionary
Rousseau was the first in a long line of convinced antifeminists within
the French Left. Women played few leading roles in the American
Revolution or in the initial stages of the French. A small group of
revolutionary feminists soon appeared in France, however. Olympe de
Gouges, “the high priestess of feminism ,” 2 drafted ( and tried to obtain
Marie Antoinette’s sponsorship of ) a Declaration of the Rights of Women
to supplement the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Mary Wollstonecraft
rebuked Burke for rejecting the French Revolution, wrote a Vindication
of the Rights of Women, and j ourneyed excitedly to republican
Paris in I 792. As the wife of the libertarian anarchist William Godwin
and mother of the wife of the romantic atheist poet Shelley, she was a
kind of matriarch of the female revolutionary tradition despite her lack
of influence in her native England or in Scandinavia, to which she
repaired after leaving revolutionary France.3

Bonneville’s Social Circle was almost alone in seeking radical equality
for women, largely through its remarkable feminist spokesperson,
the Dutch B aroness Etta Palm d’Aelders.4 The only thinker to link a
radical social vision with revolutionary ideas about the role of women
( and speculation about the polymorphous possibilities of sexual experience
) was, as we have seen, a man : the inventor of the word Communism,
Restif de la Bretonne.

The dominant spirit of the French revolutionary era was that of Les
Revolutions de Paris, advising women to stay home and “knit trousers
for our brave s ans-cullotes.” 5 “Politically, women at the close of the
Revolution were worse off than at the beginning” ; 6 and, in the settlement
of I S I S, women gained no new rights except of inheritance and
divorce-with the latter soon revoked by Louis XVIII.

The temper and legacy of the N apoleonic era was aggressively masculine.
There had been a kind of struggle within France between the
feminine world of the s alons and the masculine world of the grande
armee. N apoleon’s most tenacious internal foes had been women : first
the ideologues gathered around the last of the salon mother figures ,
Mme. Helvetius ; and then the liberal romantics gathered around Mme .
d e Stael.7

The revolutionaries of the Restoration era in continental Europe were
exclusively masculine : small bands of junior officers from the N apoleonic
wars and male students who banded together in Masonic-type fraternal
organizations. Buonarroti, the pioneer of social revolution, broke
with this exclusively m ale recruitment pattern of the early national
revolutionaries. In exile in Switzerland during the early Restoration,
he sought to work through acquaintances who had t aken temporary
teaching jobs in girls’ schools to recruit women for his trans-national
revolutionary organization. He “always found among women greater
disinterestedness, devotion and constancy than among men.” 8 His
principal aid claimed to have “created among young l adies a real army
of republican blue stockings” B in Switzerland. But Buonarroti’s inner
revolutionary organization seems never to have admitted women-apparently
because of two problems that he identified : the congenital
insolence of men ( who treat them as “pieces of domestic furniture” )
and the inability of women to get along with each other under stress.10
Prati added his own more venal complaint that women in radical
meetings were so unattractive as to cause “the most ardent lover of
womankind to make an eternal vow of celibacy.” 11

In England feminism proved a reformist rather than a revolutionary
cause. The movement for women’s suffrage had begun as early as
1 8 1 8- I g . The original version of the People’s Charter called for univers
al adult suffrage, which was only later revised to manhood suffrage.l2
English feminism , like American, moved in the bourgeois mainstream
in pursuit of the vote and rarely attached itself to socialism as an
ideology or to the proletariat as a class.13

In France, however , a truly revolutionary feminism became a major
force between the revolutions of 1 830 and 1 84 8 . The realm of politics
and power was still a man’s world, but the advent of women into journalism
brought more ranging moral concerns about society as a whole
and a new strain of pacifistic internationalism. Women helped extend
horizons beyond the often narrow political perspectives of e arlier allmale
conspiracies to broader visions of a transformed humanity.

The ever-ingenious Saint-Simonians led the way by proclaiming that
the coming social revolution would be led by a feminine messiah. Disillusioned
with the purely political Revolution of I 830 and with their
own failure to establish a new society in P aris under “Father Enfantin”
in 1 832 ( “the year of the father” ) , a large group of Saint-Simonians
proclaimed 1 833 “the year of the mother,” named themselves les compagnons
de la Femme,14 and set off to the East in search of a female
s aviour. Their leader, B arrault, proclaimed himself the “Saint Peter of
the Feminine Messiah” and s aw favorable omens in volcanic eruptions,
the appearance of Halley’s Comet , and the death of N apoleon II ( presumably
the last possible male messiah ) . B arrault addressed an appeal
To jewish Women, hailing them for rejecting the idea of a male messiah
and producing instead the “bankers of kings” and “the industrial
and political link among peoples.” Against his belief that the Jews might
produce the new feminine messiah, another Saint-Simonian argued
that India produced more sensuous goddesses and a more truly “androgynous
God” than Jewish “male authoritarianism.” 15

There was a kernel of deep seriousness in all of this . The idea that
androgyny ( the state of Adam before the fall ) was the only truly liberated
human condition had, since Boehme, been a central concept
within the occult tradition. The romantic preoccupation with overcoming
“alienation” led some beyond the social dimension into questions
about the basic , biological alienation of one sex from another. Androgyny
appeared both as the goal of humanity and the key to immortality
in Enfantin’s l ast work, La Vie Eternelle of 1 8 6 1 . 16

Fourier believed that social renovation required the h armonizing of 1 2
basic passions and 8 1 0 “principal characters” created by their interplay.
Even many who did not entertain his kind of fantasies were intrigued
by his concept of total liberation and of gratifying the passions
in gourmet phalansteries . Emancipation of women from their limited ,
familial roles was a p articularly pleasing aspect o f his system ; and the
term “feminism” was apparently introduced by FourierJ7

The Saint-Simonians argued that a man and woman together ( le
couple pretre ) should replace the individual as the basic unit of society
to insure both equality between the sexes and sociability within so
ciety.18 B uilding a new type of family was for them a prerequisite
for renovating society. With the failure both of the political Revolution
of 1 83 0 and of their own mass propaganda campaign of 1 83 1 ,
the radical Saint-Simonians thought that women n o less than workers
might provide new messages of liberation. Among the feminine converts
for creating a new “family” was an orphaned proletarian girl,
Suzanne Voilquin, who joined ( together with her husband, sister, and
brother-in-law ) the journal of women workers, La Femme Libre. Because
the title lent itself to ridicule, she soon changed it to La Femme de l’Avenir
and then La Femme Nouvelle, ou Tribune Libre des Femmes. But these
journals failed, as did the journey East in search of a feminine messiah . l9
This voyage to the East may seem in retrospect either a comic fantasy
or a p athetic reprise on N apoleon I’s expedition to Egypt. It did, nevertheless,
direct Saint-Simonians to the land that eventually built a monument
to their belief in reshaping the water routes of the world : the Suez
C anal. Moreover, their adventures did lead to a feminine messiah of
sorts. For en route to the East, B arrault met and converted to the new
S aint-Simonian doctrine a then-obscure twenty-five-year-old second
mate on the ship, Giuseppe Garibaldi.20 He was destined to become not
only one of the most successful revolutionaries of the century-but one
of the most deeply dependent on a woman.

In 1 839, after many more ocean voyages and several years of revolutionary
freebooting in Uruguay and Brazil, Garibaldi suddenly lost his
Italian comrades in a shipwreck and drifted desolately off the coast of
Brazil. According to his own testimony, he resolved to find a woman as
his only hope, spied through his ship’s telescope a magnificently athletic
creole, went ashore to tell her “you must be mine,” and brought
her back on board.21 Whatever the exact truth of the story, there is no
doubt that Anita, his “Brazilian Amazon,” s aved him from ruin. Throughout
the next decade she was inseparably at his side even during long
horseback rides and hard fighting, until she died in 1 849 outside Rome
amidst the collapse of the revolutionary republic they had briefly established
there.

The newly active women of France in the e arly nineteenth century
were neither revolutionaries nor messiahs : no longer dames but not yet
citoyennes . If men had celebrated their revolutionary opposition to
the aristocracy sartorially by becoming sans-culottes, some women now
also began to defy bourgeois convention by assuming male dress.22
Journals for women slowly moved from fashion and gossip to social
s atire and reform .

Saint-Simonian feminists disrupted a speech by Robert Owen in P aris
in 1 83 7 in a manner foreshadowing later internal protests within the
Left against “male chauvinism .” The young woman who denounced the
absence of women from Owen’s podium was challenging the identification
of radical social reform with the arid rationalism and exclusively
masculine organization of Owen’s principal host, Cesar More au,
founder of the Societe de Statistique Universelle and editor of L’Univers
M aQonnique. 23

The most important new aspect of social ferment attributable largely
to women was a passion for pacifism and nonviolence. Delphine
Gay and George Sand collaborated in a campaign for the abolition
“of all violent penalties, and the suppression of wars” in the moderate
Christian Journal des Femmes, which began appearing in 1 83 2 . Eugenie
Niboyet, the editor of several j ournals for women and a leading feminist
in Paris, founded in Lyon the first p acifist p eriodical : La Paix des
Deux Mondes.24

The entrance of women into revolutionary activity was directly related
to the emergence of a social revolutionary tradition as a rival
to nationalism. However colorful the example of Anita Garibaldi, women
played almost no role in the Halo-Polish national revolutionary movements.
Of the 5,472 Polish emigres registered in France in I 839, almost
all were revolutionary nationalists and less than two hundred were
women.25 The most remarkable new prophet of pacifism and antinationalism
in the pre- 1 848 period was another Latin American who
came closer than Anita Garibaldi to filling the role of a female messiah :
Flora Tristan y Moscozo. The daughter of a Peruvian aristocrat allegedly
descended from Montezuma and the future grandmother of
Gauguin, Tristan was the first to conceive of a truly denationalized
class solidarity among the proletariat.26

At the conclusion of the physical and spiritual wanderings amply recited
in her Peregrinations of a Pariah, Tristan joined together in the
1 84os the causes of women and workers, the two “pariahs” of the modern
world.27 After leaving her husband, who had nearly murdered her,
and reverting to her maiden name , Tristan went to London. Horrified by
its poverty and inhumanity, she called it “the monster city” ( La Ville
Monstre ) .2B She went everywhere, from the House of Lords ( whose allmale
premises she entered disguised as a Turk ) 29 to the famous lunatic
asylum of Bedlam, on a visit to which she appears to have acquired
her sense of a messianic calling.so
Tristan toured France seeking adherents for her projected Union
Ouvriere, gained the collaboration of George Sand, and corresponded
with German journalists about her idea of a “universal union” of workers.
31 She associated the term proletariat not only with the economic
category of propertyless workers, but also with the moral mission of
s aving humanity from all its divisions-including those between the
sexes. The hero of her truly fantastic socialist novel, Mephis or the
Proletarian, was a rich banker who simultaneously comes under the
spell of a feminine messiah and declares himself a proletarian.32
Tristan remained florid in fantasy till her death early in I 844. She
contended that Christ’s second coming would be far more cheerful than
his first, since he would no longer be single but accompanied by a
femme-guide.33 She also argued that the three persons of the Trinity
should in the coming socialist age be represented as Father, Mother,
and Embryo .34

Her last book was written together with lhe occultist Abbe Constant ,
as she immersed herself in a bizarre subculture of mystical feminists
under the influence of his The Assumption of the Woman .35 The most
fantastic were the “fusionists,” who proclaimed the Feast of the Assumption
in the year I 838 as the “first day of the year Evadah,” in
which a new androgynous species (recombining Eve with Adam, as the
name indicates ) would begin transforming the Earth. Speaking as le
Mapah ( the combination of mama and pap a ) , the prolific author of this
fanciful cult persisted in his beliefs, later proclaiming 1 845 as “the
year one of the p araclete .” :H; The Saint-Simonian D’Eichtal argued that
the doctrine of the trinity was in reality “une haute formule zooLoGIQUE”
for h armonizing all earthly conflict. The “male” white race and
the “female” black race were to generate “the new mulatto humanity
. . . still in the cradle .” 37

Flora Tristan contributed to “the emancipation of women” -the subject
of her first book and title of her last one .38 But her real importance-
and that of the new women journalists of the 1 84os generallylay
in their infecting the broader socialist movement with distinctive
concerns that properly reflect ( in part at least ) their sex : a commitment
to nonviolence, an internationalist opposition to any purely national
revolution , and a special sympathy for the forgotten, “invisible” sufferers
of the new industrial society : prisoners, mental patients, and
victims of religious and racial discrimination.39 In her last year, she
gained ten thousand signatures for her petition to free the blacks.40
Having once been shot by her imperious and incestuous husband,
Tristan felt that women had to play a central role in the coming sodal
struggle to preserve nonviolence as “intellectual power succeeds brute
force” 41 in human affairs .

In America, the cause of women’s rights was also often linked with
that of Negro rights and of nonviolence.42 Oberlin College, which
pioneered the admission of blacks on an equal basis with whites , also
became in 1 84 1 the first to graduate women. The two causes were
blended together in a remarkable American contemporary and counterp
art of Flora Tristan : Frances Wright. She was the rarest of all phenomena
: a dedicated revolutionary in a prosperous, post-revolutionary
society.

The daughter of a wealthy Scottish merchant, Frances ( Fanny ) Wright
published in London in 1 82 1 , Views of Society and Manners in America,
which inspired revolutionaries throughout Europe during the Restoration
era and led to an intimate , lifelong contact with the sixty-sevenyear-
old Marquis de Lafayette. On their first meeting, he paid tribute to
her writings about the American Revolution :

You have made me live those days over again . . . . We were an army of
brothers; we had all things in common, our pleasures, our pains, our money,
and our poverty.43

Her hopes mingled with his memories . She moved in for long periods
into the room underneath his in his estate at La Grange. Americ a was ,
in Wright’s words, “our utopia” ; 44 and their shared belief in the perfection
of the New World formed the basis of a “friendship of no
ordinary character” 4″ between them. Repeatedly rumored to be his
mistress, she tried in fact to become his adopted daughter. After returning
to London , she corresponded with him incessantly ( often in
cypher) throughout the era of C arbonari intrigues. She accompanied
him to America in September 1 824, remained with him throughout most
of his long, triumphal tour, and returned to France for five years of renewed
association in the revolutionary summer of 1 830.

A handsome woman nearly six feet tall, Fanny Wright often appeared in white, toga-like attire. She gave her friends names from
antiquity (Jeremy Bentham was “Socrates” ) , and became herself a kind
of classical goddess for many young revolutionaries . She acted as comp
anion and consoler to the Irish martyr Wolfe Tone in New York, the
Italian General Pepe in London, and an unidentified lover known only
in her correspondence by the revolutionary pseudonym of Eugene.46
In the second half of the 1 82 os, Fanny Wright attempted to put into
effect a grandiose plan to free the American slaves by integrating blacks
into a new type of egalitarian community : new plantations that would
be converted into productive Owenite settlements. Working closely
with the son of Robert Owen ( and attempting to enlist the widow of
Shelley ) , she set up a pilot multi-racial community first in N ashoba,
Tennessee, and then in the main Owenite settlement of New Harmony,
Indiana. On July 4, 1 828, she became the first woman in the New World
to deliver the main address in a large public celebration of this national
holiday.47

She became an ardent Jacksonian and moved to Philadelphia amidst
the gathering labor turmoil which s aw the establishment of the first labor
paper in history, the Mechanics’ Free Press, in 1 828. In New York
City she founded a radical propaganda society, the Free Enquirers, that
celebrated Thomas Paine’s birthday as its major event and established
branches in other cities, p artly on the Carbonari model.48 Still preoccupied
with the racial question, she set off to Haiti with a group of
blacks and a radical French printer and educator, Guillaume Sylvain
Casimir Phiquepal D’Arusmont, whom she married in 1 83 1 after becoming
pregnant.

In 1 830, first elated, then soon disillusioned by the July Revolution in
France, she concluded that only in America could the final, universal
revolution be realized. She saw it as atheistic , egalitarian, and anarchistic.
In the final seventeen years of her life after her return to America
in 1 835, she bought the Cincinnati home of the anarchist Josiah
Warren , and championed “the ridden people of the earth” against “the
‘booted and spurred’ riders.” She became increasingly apocalyptical as
the radical tide receded in post-Jacksonian America. On the eve of
I 848, she predicted that America was on the verge of a new “fourth age”
of humanity. Christianity, “the religion of kings” had given way to
feudalism, which was replaced in America first by “the B anking and
Funding System” and now by a totally secular religion of the people.49
A radical conception of the role of women was central to her revolutionary
teaching. She had t aken Lafayette in 1 824 to hear the pioneer
of women’s education, Emma Willard, in Troy, New York ; and she was
so opposed to the use of the male term “brotherhood” that she changed
490 the classic revolutionary slogan of “liberty, equality, fraternity” into
“liberty, equality and altruism.” 50 But she made enemies by advocating
that children be removed from their parents at the age of two
and placed in publicly supported schools that would inculcate egalitarian
ideas. Her opposition to the institution of the family and to all
organized religion put her at odds even with the radical abolitionists ;
and her desire rapidly to mix the races into a new, uniformly mulatto
population activated racist sentiment. She died largely forgotten in
1 852. The milestones in women’s emancipation in the Anglo-American
world had passed her by : the beginning of the women’s suffrage movement
at the Anti-Slavery Convention in London of June 1 840, and the
first convention on women’s rights summoned by the Society of Friends
in western New York in the summer of 1 848.51

It was in Europe, not America or Great Britain, that feminism became
linked with revolution.52 Fanny Wright had first been attracted to the
revolution ary cause by reading a history of the American Revolution
written by an Italian, who had projected onto the American experience
his own hopes for Italian national liberation.53 The grande dame of
radical feminism in New England, Margaret Fuller of Brook Farm, became
a true revolutionary only in Italy, where she was swept into the
Revolution of 1 848 after visiting France and George S and in 1 847.5.J
The European upheaval of 1 848-49 produced a host of new feminist
journals, many with revolutionary positions. The first women’s daily in
France, La Voix des Femmes, appeared in March 1 848 as a “socialist
and political journal”; and was followed by La Femme Libre, La
Republique des Femmes ( which published La Marseillaise des Femmes
in its first issue ) ,55 and La Politique des Femmes ( a journal of workingclass
women which soon changed its name to L’Opinion des Femmes ) .
A remarkable group of young women demonstrated under the banner
Vesuviennes in March, issued a Manifeste des Vesuviennes in April, and
proceeded to set up an egalitarian female commune in Belleville, where
the original Communist B anquet had been held. 56

But women’s liberation was still far away. Ribald journals ridiculed
women’s demands,57 and most revolutionaries remained p atronizingly
indifferent to the ‘1ady Vesuviuses.” Delphine Gay complained that the
cry “long live the provisional government !” was equated with “long live
the provisional ladies !” 58

Women played a leading role throughout the 1840s in glorifying the
art forms of ordinary workers and peasants, proclaiming that, in the
present era, “the creative role in poetry belongs to the proletariat, to
the people.” 59 This literary populism which swept through Europe in the
1 84os owes its deepest debt to the most influential woman of her age ,
one of the few who dared wear men’s clothes and adopt a man’s
name, George Sand. Almost singlehandedly she turned the serialized
novel into seductive socialist propaganda. Beginning with her Spiridon
of 1 838, written under the influence of Lamennais, she flooded France
with a new kind of fiction, which challenged both the historical novel
of Stendahl and the realistic novel of B alzac. She purported to depict
man not as he was or is, but “as I wish he were, as I believe he shall
be” ; 60 and she fired the revolutionary imagination of the 1 84os by
identifying this ideal with peasant and proletarian in a romantic, almost
sensuous manner. But Sand faded away as a revolutionary voice after
the failures of 1 848. The Second Empire of Napoleon III proved even
more aggressively m asculine in spirit than the First Empire of N apoleon
Bonaparte.

Women played a major role in the Paris Commune. The forces of the
Right, which attacked with special vehemence in their propaganda les
petroleuses, the “women incendiaries” who allegedly set fire to P aris,
arraigned more than one thousand women in the repression that followed.
G1 A first sign that Russian women were to take away the leadership
role of revolutionary womanhood from the French may be detected
in the dominant role assumed by Russian emigrees in the two principal
women’s organizations in the Commune, the Union of Women and
the Montmartre Women’s Vigilance Committee. 62

One final female leader of the French revolutionary tradition arose
from the martyrdom of the Paris Commune : Louise Michel. She reasserted
with new intensity the characteristic Sand-Tristan themes of internationalism
and pacifism. Variously known as la Vierge rouge, la sainte laique, and la fiamme revolutionnaire, G3 she was as inflammatory
in speech as she was demure in appearance. Perennially dressed in
black with a high white collar, she defended herself eloquently at the
trial of communards, endured prison in New Caledonia, and returned
to become the uncompromising apostle of the anarcho-syndicalist
dream of la grande greve. 64

Michel was one of those leaders who belonged to no party “but to the
Revolution as a whole.” 65 By the turn of the century she was perhaps
the most passionate and outspoken foe of militarism in Europe.
Denied a visa by the United States and expelled from Belgium, the very
suggestion that she might venture abroad anywhere unleashed a flood
of protests and appeals to the Quai d’Ors ay.66

She spoke eloquently on questions that revolutionaries usually
avoided. After nearly dying early in 1 904, she outlined a revolutionary
attitude towards death before a large audience in Paris. She lent beauty
to revolutionary atheism, describing death as a mere “incorporation
into the elements,” a radiation outward from the body of aromas and
colors , a return to the simplicity that she remembered in New Caledonia
after a typhoon. The complexities of human language would simply disappear;
and a simple song “composed by a nihilist” would fill the air
and enable one to descend into “the hole of shadows . . . beating back
with one’s arms the walls of an abyss.” 67

As if to p arody the purity of such faith, the various revolutionary factions
in France quarreled bitterly over the right to dispose of her body
when she died in Marseilles on J anuary g, 1 905. Anarchists vied for her
remains with Rochefort, the former revolutionary journalist who had
supported her financially even after his turn to reactionary nationalism .
Her funeral was the largest popular procession in France since the:
492 burial of Victor Hugo twenty years earlier.us As her body was lowered
into the grave, the cry rang out, “Long live the Russian revolution ! Long
live anarchy !” 69 On the very day of her burial, the Russian Revolution
of 1905 h ad broken out. It was a revolution she had predicted just before
her death,70 and was led by a movement in which women played
a more central role than they ever had in France.

The Russians

The example of George Sand helped implant within Russia the revolutionary
consciousness that prepared the way for 1 905 and 1 9 1 7. The
two greatest writers who participated in the pioneering socialist circles
of the 1 84os in Russia, Dostoevsky and Saltykov, both considered
Sand a le ading force in activating their social consciousness and one
of the supreme personalities of the century.71 H ad she lived beyond
her premature de ath in 1 842, Elena H ahn, a novelist and early advocate
of women’s rights , might have been the Russian George Sand.72 Had
Konarski’s revolution ary network in western Russia not been destroyed
in 1 839, the organizer of its special women’s circles, Ewa Felinska,
might have become the Russian Flora Tristan.73 Had the Russia of
Nicholas I not turned repressive in its later years, it might have imbibed
the revolutionary feminism of Suzanne Voilquin and other S aintSimonians
who moved from Egypt to Russia in the late 1 83os, bringing
with them the vague idea that Nefertiti and Cleopatra provided models
for the new feminism .74 Most influential of all in the 1 84os was
Herzen’s novel in imitation of George S and about an illegitimate Russian
girl in which the cause of female liberation was linked to that of
liberating the serfs .75

Under the more liberal rule of Alexander II, the role of women and
the women’s question became centrally important to the Russian revolutionary
tradition. The young seized on the issue of women’s rights in
part because of the unusually subordinate position historically assigned
to women in Muscovite society. Here also was an issue that directly,
emotionally affected university students themselves newly released
from the social and doctrinal rigidities of a seminary-based secondary
school and anxious to break with the matriarchal dominance
and patriarchal discipline of the traditional Russian family. The greatly
increased university population of the early  86os sought a new communal
ethic and life-style that would provide both social justice and
sexual satisfaction.

Whatever their individual motives , the new generation as a whole
adopted women’s rights as perhaps its main social cause during the
period between the emancipation of the serfs in 1 86 1 and the discovery
of the urban proletariat about a decade later. Chernyshevsky provided
an ascetic model of the “new woman” as well as the “new man” in his
What is to be done? 76

Mikhailov, who had preceded Chernyskevsky as a martyr in the sixties,
made his radical reputation as an apostle of women’s liberation.
Influenced by Saint-Simonians whom he visited in Paris, Mikhailov terrified
church officials even in distant Siberia with his proposals to “take
away the bridle from women.” 77 He exemplified the new ethics by
living in a menage a trois with Nicholas Shelgunov and his wife ( who
bore Mikhailov a child ) , and by accepting guilt as sole author of the
proclamation To the Younger Generation-saving the principal author,
Shelgunov, from imprisonment.7s

Nicholas Mikhailovsky, the most influential populist journalist inside
Russia throughout the final third of the nineteenth century, also cut his
polemic teeth on this issue . From his first three published articles as a
boy of seventeen in I 86o to his laudatory preface of I 86g to John Stu art
Mill’s Rights of Women, Mikhailovsky devoted much of his energies to
the cause of women.79 Woman’s Herald, printed in St. Petersburg during
I 86o-68, the last and most radical feminist journal of the r 86os,
attracted contributions from influential writers like Lavrov and the
novelist Gleb Uspensky, who were to dominate the populist era.
Russia in I 86g-7o followed England by just a few months in pioneering
the admission of women to advanced study in its major universities.
H0 Fem ale students proceeded to play a major role in the intensified
radical agitation of the early seventies. In Zurich, the major center of
Russian study abroad, I 03 of the 153 students at the university were
women. 81 So central to the budding revolutionary movement were the
new women’s groups ( from the women’s club for logical speech to
the Fritschi group, named for their b affled Swiss landlady ) 82 that the
alarmed Russian government in December I 87 3 , ordered all women
students to return from Zurich by the end of the year. The male minority
demonstrated their solidarity with the women by returning also ;
and the women reciprocated by participating in both the movement
to the people of I 874 and the subsequent turn to terrorism. Almost
every dramatic moment of the I 87os produced the heroic example of
a young woman. Vera Zasulich, a typesetter in St. Petersburg, opened
the campaign of political terror by shooting the police chief of St.
Petersburg in January I 878. When she gained acquittal by her courtroom
oratory, she provided a successful model for turning the criminal
trial of a would-be ass assin into the political trial of the intended
victim.

The final plans for the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II
on March I , r 88 I , were supervised by a frail twenty-six-year-old
blonde, Sophia Perovskaya. Another female conspirator, Gesya Helfman,
provided the major human interest of the trial ( and gained the only reprieve
from the gallows ) when it became known that she was pregnant.
A male revolutionary observed that “women are more cruel than we
men” ; 83 and this tended to be true in fantasy as well as in fact. The
494 women’s choral cry of “Death ! Death !” provided both the orgiastic
musical climax and the murderous message of the mob in the final
“revolutionary scene” in the Kromi forest of Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov.
In the atmosphere of reaction under the new Tsar Alexander III , yet
another woman named Faith ( Russian Vera ) kept alive the revolutionary
faith. Vera Figner played the leading role within Russia in preserving
for much of the decade a vestige of the old People’s Will organization,
her memoirs providing one of the best human chronicles of
the movement.84 Maria Oshanina, the third woman veteran ( along with
Perovskaya and Figner ) of the executive committee of the People’s Will,
was a leading Jacobin centralizer and major transmitter of conspiratorial
ideas to the new revolutionary movements of the 1 89os.85

Though often mistresses to the young revolutionaries , women were
also often mother figures. Alexandra Weber, for instance, provided maternal
care and companionship successively to each of the two rival
leaders in the revolutionary emigration of the 1 87os : nursing B akunin
in his last years, then serving as the intimate confidante of Lavrov.86
Inside Russia, the illegal press of the original Land and Liberty organization,
which defied police detection for four years in the early 1 86os,
was housed in the fiat of an elderly woman nicknamed “Mother of
God .” Revolutionaries recalled entering her premises “with the sense of
awe experienced by the faithful crossing the threshold of a temple.” 87
Such images were not simply a figure of speech ; the revolutionary
tradition was influenced here by Russian sectarian religion, often centered
on a female leader known as a “Mother of God .” Land and Liberty
published a special journal for religious dissenters and gave itself the
coded designation Akulina, from a female saint whose name was used
both by a famous sectarian prophetess and by the flagellant sect that
went to the extreme of self-castration.ss

Women tended to be more revolutionary than feminist in Russia. They
unhesitatingly used femininity for revolutionary purposes- arranging
a fictitious marriage to provide conspiratorial cover, hiding a revolver
in a muff, stuffing a detonator in a corset. 89

The distinctive role of women in the Russian movement was to purify
and intensify terror, not to articulate ideas.ao Thus women took
the lead in sustaining the terrorist tradition after the destruction of
the People’s Will organization ( about half of the sentences to life at
hard labor in the 1 88os were imposed on women ) 91 and in reviving
that tradition in the early twentieth century. One third of the members
of the “fighting organization” of 1 902-1 0 , which gave the Socialist
Revolutionary p arty moral and numerical leadership among Russian
revolutionaries, were women.92 These women viewed revived revoluionary
violence not so much as a calculated political tactic, but rather
as an expression of “the urge for moral wholeness.” 93 They often displayed
an “almost reverent” attitude towards the terroristic act.94
After the Revolution of 1 9 0 5 , women played leading roles in both
the Maximalist pursuit of terrorist raids and plans ( often altogether outside
the discipline of the Socialist Revolutionary party ) and in the
deepening self-criticism among terrorists in Siberian prison and exile.95
One key Maximalist, appropriately the great-gr anddaughter of a Decembrist,
described this process of re-examination in Siberia as an intensification
of commitment rather than an examination of tactics. Everything
the women had done “was again analyzed from the point of view
of its purity.” 9 G This passion for purity fueled a growing desire among
women revolution aries to be the one to throw the bomb,97 to be sentenced
to death,9B or even to immolate one’s self in prison. As if reverting
to the self-burning tradition of the Old Believers (where women,
too, had played a leading role ) ,99 women terrorists in the populist-S .R.
tradition used this awesome tactic to express the sincerity of their
faith : Sofia Ginsburg in 18go, Maria Vetrova in 1897, and Sofia Khrenkova,
a vill age teacher and mother of three, in Igo8.1°0

Fire was moving from the minds of men to the bodies of women.
Their bodies like their faith were usually pure. Both forms of purity
were sealed by the heroic act of martyrdom , which lent to the words
of women an authority that they could not otherwise easily command
in Russian society.

Terrorist women were generally selective, restrained, and even selfsacrificial
in their use of violence. Evstoliia Rogozinnikova, a twentyone-
year-old scholarship student at the St. Petersburg Conservatory of
Music, apparently used her be autiful figure-heavily perfumed in an
elegant black dress-to gain entry into the main prison administration
in St. Petersburg, where she shot the director. She was forcibly prevented
from carrying out her original intention of blowing up the
entire building by detonating the thirteen pounds of high explosives
that she had packed into her bodice and used to enhance her bust.101
As she was executed three days later in St. Petersburg, new Joans-ofArc
began to appear in the provinces, lending compelling moral authority
to the belief in social revolution during this darkest period of reaction
. Sincere young gir ls repeatedly faced old male judges after assaulting
their all-male targets. Yet they continued to win the battle
for the hearts and minds of men as well as women not just by their
courtroom testimony, but by gladly going to die “as one would to a holiday
festivity.” 1o2 A peasant girl terrorist was typical as well as prophetic,
when she proclaimed in a Kiev courtroom in 1go8 just before
killing herself that “our death, like a hot flame , will ignite many
hearts.” 103

The Germans

Turning from martyrs to leaders, one moves from largely noble Russian
women, who were in many ways the purified final embodiment
of the Russian intelligentsia, 104 to more hardheaded German women
who brought organizational and ideological discipline into the revolutionary
camp through the Social Democratic movement.

Marx had paid relatively little attention to the revolutionary role, let
alone the feminist cause, of women _lo5 He had envisaged the disappearance
of the authoritarian family prior to 1 848, and rejected the
intense antifeminism of Proudhon. But he had a Victorian family life
himself; and Engels spoke for both of them in s aying that the German
communists’ effort to emancipate women during the 1 848 revolution
had produced only a “few blue stockings, some hysteria, a good portion
of German family quarrels-but not even one bastard.” 106
Though German women revolutionaries never approached the intensity
of the Russians ( at least until the female terrorists of the 1 96os ) , 107
they did pioneer in founding unions for women,108 and the first of a
host of Social Democratic women’s organizations in the mid- 1 87os.
The cofounder of the German party, August Bebel, produced his theoretical
work, Woman and Socialism, in 1 879, five years before Engels’s
less influential and more theoretical Origin of the Family. 1°9
The German movement received an injection of Russian intensity
when its leading woman, Clara Zetkin, visited St. Petersburg as revolutionary
unrest was mounting in 1 878, became fascinated by the Russian
example, and married a Russian. After the repeal of Bismarck’s
antisocialist laws of 1 878-90, she founded a special p aper for socialist
women, Equality ( Die Gleichheit ) , which became an international journal
after she cofounded an Internation al Socialist Women’s Congress
in 1 907. Women were, however, underrepresented in the German p arty
leadership ; and at times Zetkin and the Austrian leader Adelheid Popp
were the only women leaders to be found in the large German-speaking
delegations to the congresses of the Second International . Zetkin’s parallel
“Women’s International” collapsed after a final, desperate Women’s
Conference against World War I in 1 9 1 5 at Bern . 110 As a friend of
Lenin, a Communist, and the oldest member of the Reichstag, Zetkin
presided over the penultimate meeting of the last freely elected German
parliament before Hitler. 1 11

Meanwhile, Zetkin’s movement had found fulfillment in Russia.
Within a year of her Socialist Women’s Congress, the Russians had
assembled one thousand women for the First All Russian Congress of
Women in 1 908.!12 When Zetkin designated March 8 International
Women’s D ay in 1 9 1 0 , the Russians celebrated it with special intensity.
The annual demonstration led to repression in 1 9 1 4 and prevented the
launching of the special journal, RabotnitsG; ( The Woman Worker )
planned by Lenin’s wife Krupskaia, his sister Anna Elizarova, and
his closest female friend , Inessa Armand. The holiday was next celebrated
three years later with the demonstration that led to the overthrow
of tsarism on March 8, 1 9 1 7. After the Provisional Government
was in turn overthrown by the Bolsheviks , Rabotnitsa was revived, a
Second Women’s Congress held in 1 9 1 7, and a special Women’s Section
( Zhenotdel) of the Central Committee established first under Armand
then under Kollontai .113 They fought to realize the equality for
women that was formally guaranteed by the Soviet Constitution-ex
tending the concept with particularly radical effect into the traditionalist
societies of Central Asia, using the public ritual of “tearing off
the veil” from Muslim women 114 who became the “surrogate proletariat”
for an enforced social revolution. 115

Rosa Luxemburg

But by far the greatest of all women revolutionaries of the early
twentieth century was Clara Zetkin’s friend Rosa Luxemburg. She
added to Russian and German involvements the passion of her native
Polish revolutionary tradition and the prophetic intensity of her Jewish
ancestry. She opposed both elitist Bolshevism and reformist Social Democracy.
Luxemburg presented for a brief moment at the end of World
War I the vision of a revolution big enough to unite Germans and
Russians, to resolve the Polish, Jewish, and women’s question all at
once. With her death in 1 9 1 9 , the vision faded of a revolution that
would be uncompromisingly both international and democratic.

Born to a Jewish merchant family in Russian Poland, Luxemburg was
impressed as a fifteen-year-old girl with the working-class agitation in
Warsaw that began in the winter of 1 885, well before comparable unrest
in St. Petersburg. She was briefly connected with the major organizations
of revolutionary socialists within Poland, “Proletariat” and “Second
Proletariat,” before fleeing to Zurich in 1 888.1 16 In that emigre
center of Russian and Polish Marxists, she met her lifelong revolutionary
companion and future husband, Leo Jogiches ( Tyszka ) , shortly after
he too fled abroad in 1 8g o . He had been a revolutionary leader in Vilnius,
where Jewish women had played key roles in beginning Social
Democratic organizations within the Russian Empire.ll7 He briefly established
contact with Plekhanov’s Liberation of Labor group, then transferred
allegiance along with Luxemburg to the Social Democratic party
of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. Beginning in 1 893, she p articipated
in every congress of the Second International except the final
one in 1 9 1 3 , and was in every sense of the word an international
figure.

Luxemburg began her lifelong struggle against national parochialism
by rejecting the cause of Polish independence, which had been espoused
by the larger Polish Socialist party ( PPS ) founded in 1 892. She
argued instead for total Polish involvement in the destruction of tsarism.

Her struggle in Poland for a Marxist proletarian party against
the populist , peasant-based PPS paralleled the conflict between Marxists
and populists in Russia. She internationalized her perspective by expanding
her interest to include the struggle of Poles under the Hapsburgs
and Hohenzollerns as well as under the Romanovs .ns Her industry
abroad made the Polish party an effective pressure group in
the Second International, and she became the driving force behind the
theoretical journal of the Polish party.l19 But she settled in Germany
after 1 898, and transferred her main energy thereafter into the struggle
against Bernstein’s revisionism within the Social Democratic party. Like
Lenin, she combined an uncompromising revolutionary faith with great
tactical flexibility based on subtle ideological distinctions . She argued
that prior to a revolution socialists could and should serve in p arliaments
that make laws, but never in an executive branch which enforces
them. l20 She relied more than Lenin on institutions spontaneously
generated by the proletariat, and made the most sustained effort
of any leading Marxist to adapt the new Latin ideal of a general strike
into a skeptical German Social Democracy.

She invented the term “mass strike,” not as a “crafty device discovered
by subtle reasoning,” but as a description of what the complacent
Germans might learn from the Russian revolutionary experience of
1 905. l21 For Luxemburg, the mass strike was a new form of proletarian
class struggle that had superseded the bourgeois barricades of
1 848-49 and even 1 870-7 1 . The mass strike was a spontaneously generated
phenomenon that was not called into being, and could not be
manipulated on its course by any self-proclaimed elite. l22 The mass
strike unified the political ( antiabsolutist ) and economic ( anticapitalist
) struggles , and progressed necessarily from the demonstrative to
the fighting stage. After initial demonstrations had overcome inertia
and stimulated political consciousness, fighting would begin spontaneously
and usually accidentally. Out of the shared experience of combat,
new forms of proletarian politics and culture would emerge.
In Luxemburg’s view, the Russian Revolution of 1 905 failed because
the economic struggle, which had led to nationwide political struggle
during the October general strike, relapsed back thereafter into parochial
economic conflicts. But since this was the first revolution in which
the proletariat had assumed the leading role, she urged the German
Social Democrats to regard it “as their own” and to learn from it .
Above all, the Russian example showed the “bureaucratised” Germans
how a less organized movement can leapfrog over a less active oneand
how organization can grow out of struggle rather than the other
way around.123

Her emphasis on the “spontaneous” leadership of the masses in the
revolutionary process put her at odds with Lenin. She had been one of
the first to criticize Lenin’s emphasis on the vanguard role of the
p arty as representing “ultra-centralism,” “the sterile spirit of the night
watchman,” dictatorship over the masses rather than of the masses.l24
She s aw Lenin as guilty of the same “subjectivism” and “Blanquism”
that had haunted Russian populism; and she consistently rejected Lenin’s
willingness to allot a progressive role to national revolutionary
movements in the coming social revolution. In her unfinished study of
the Bolshevik Revolution ( written while in prison in Breslau/Wroclaw )
Luxemburg insisted that democratic forms be applied immediately under
the dictatorship of the proletariat. She censured the reliance on
terror and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly by the Bolsheviks,
translating the word democracy into “people’s hegemony” ( Volksherrschaft)
in an effort to find a vocabulary adequate for her idea, 125
Her criticism of terror in 1 9 1 8 was ultimately the same as her original
criticism of party elitism in 1 903 : that it leads to an atrophy of
initiative and a growth of the very bureaucratic rule that revolutions
should supplant.l26 P arallel criticism of Lenin’s elitism was given a
special aura of disinterested purity by the most revered revolutionary
woman within Russia, Vera Zasulich, who had moved from populism
to Marxism ,127

Despite their deep differences and criticisms of each other, Luxemburg
resembled Lenin in leading a Left opposition within a prewar
Social Democratic p arty, in developing a global vision that provided
outward courage and inner serenity, in linking capitalism to imperialism
and war, and in seeing national war as inevitably leading to social
revolution.

During the period of reaction between the ebbing of the revolutionary
tide in Russia in 1 906 and the outbreak of World War I, both Lenin
and Luxemburg sought to fortify the ideological fervor of their respective
parties with major new theoretical writings. Luxemburg sought to
use not merely journalism, but also the p arty school at Berlin as a
vehicle for attacking the more c autious and doctrinaire wing of the
party and for radicalizing future party leaders . This technique was
adopted first by the “left Bolsheviks” under Bogdanov at Capri ( 1 909 )
and Bologna ( November 1 9 1 0 through March 1 9 I I ) and then by Lenin
at Longjumeau outside Paris in the summer of 1 9 1 1 . 128 Luxemburg also
preceded Lenin in making a Marxist analysis of imperialism , and she
paralleled Lenin in her radical boycott of World War I. Her famed
“Junius brochure,” written in prison in 1 9 1 5 , rejected the key argument
used by the German Social Democrats to rationalize their support
of the war effort : that it was a defensive war against the Russian
peril. 129 She insisted that no isolated defensive war was possible for
major powers in the age of imperialism. The Russian proletariat, she
said, was now at the forefront of revolution, and not merely part of
the reactionary monolith that it had seemed to Marx at the time of the
1 848 revolution and to most German Social Democrats ever since. In
the war, Luxemburg s aw new possibilities for revolution. When she
was released from prison and arrived in Berlin on November 1 0 , 1 9 1 8 ,
the day before the final armistice, she plunged into a delirium of activity
designed to realize a social revolution in Germany.

Her ill-fated attempt at revolution played back in reprise many of the
basic themes and symbols of the revolutionary tradition. Even her
choice of revolutionary pseudonyms betrayed an unconscious harkening
back to origins. From Junius ( originally used by the Strasbourgeois
Jewish revolutionary Frey in P aris during the great French Revolution ) ,
she moved to the Gracchus of B abeuf, on to the Spartacus adopted by
the original German progenitor of revolutionism , Adam Weishaupt. Her
Spartacus League adopted in December 1 9 1 8 the label Communist,
soo which Restif had invented and Lenin revived. “I don’t have time to
think about what will happen to me,” she wrote Clara Zetkin , adding
in French-as if reverting to the basic language of the tradition itselfC’est
la revolution.l30 She denounced the liberals as “little Lafayettes”
in a final article 131 before moving to direct the revolution through
a daily journal bearing the classical label of social revolution : Red
Flag ( Rote Fahne ) . She also planned on a theoretical weekly to bear a
title describing its scope , Die Internationale.

Hers was a revolution of the young. At the founding conference of
her new Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands ( Spartakusbund ) late in
December, her husband was the only delegate ( out of 1 27 from 56 localities
) over the age of fifty.l32 Hers was a movement led by journalistic
intellectuals. One of its few victories was the occupation of the
Wolff telegraphic bureau in Berlin-the heart of the s ame communic
ations system that had so fascinated Marx when he first came in
contact with its extremity in Brussels.

Luxemburg was too penetrating an analyst of society not to realize
that there was no hope for immediate revolution ; and she argued
against the illusions of her principal corevolutionary Karl Liebknecht.
Since, however, she was committed to a mass-based general strike and
to a revolutionary struggle against the national assembly, she saw no
alternative but to j oin the disorganized struggle that ensued in January.
Her Spartacists combatted armed forces that were returning from
the front and attempting to establish the authority of the national
assembly and of the more conservative Social Democrats. A general
strike attracted mass participation, and led to a brief seizure of centers
of transportation and communication. But Luxemburg lacked both Lenin’s
organization and his ability to translate strategic vision into concrete
battle plans. The revolutionary Spartacists and their allies were
soon shot down and Luxemburg was killed together with Liebknecht
on the night of January 1 5 .

Hitler’s N ational Socialism was to be the final gargoyle of masculine
revolutionary nationalism . Luxemburg’s uncompromising socialist internationalism
was its polar opposite : the culmination of the antinationalist,
antimilitarist tradition among women revolutionaries . Her
implacable opposition to any participation in World War I had been
echoed in Russia by the leading radical feminist Alexandra Kollontai,
who joined Lenin’s Bolshevik party in 1 9 1 5 largely because of his opposition
to the war. Like Luxemburg and Zasulich, Kollontai identified
revolution with the spontaneity of working-class initiative rather than
the elite Leninist party. She outlived the others and became a member
of the Workers’ Opposition after serving as the first commissar for
public welfare following the Bolshevik Revolution .133

That revolution was the first to proclaim equal rights for women.
Krupskaia, Zetkin, and others joined Kollontai in claiming universal
significance for this aspect of the new order. Increasingly, however,
the revolution in power seemed to provide more the obligation to perform
old types of work than the opportunity to build a new type of
society. Despite formal gains for women in CIVIC and occupational
equality, the founding mothers, no less than the founding fathers, saw
their hopes disappointed. l34 The Soviet state relied on precisely that
combination of terror and bureaucracy that Luxemburg had feared.
Rosa Luxemburg had brought to the revolutionary tradition a special
womanly fullness of sensibility largely absent from the GermanoRussian
period of revolutionary history. Indeed, she brought back something
of the expressive humanism of the earlier Halo-Polish period
into the arid puritanism of the Social Democratic tradition, which both
Lenin and his barren coworker and wife, Krupskaia, epitomized.
Luxemburg had expressed the special, universal criticism of society
that women of unusual ability and sensitivity like Wright and Tristan
had voiced before. She breathed inspiration into the grim Social Democratic
movement often through a network of other women : Louise
Kautsky, with whom she remained an intimate friend even after breaking
with Kautsky in 1 9 1 0 ; 135 Clara Zetkin , the early foe of revisionism
and intimate correspondent of her last years; and Sophie Liebknecht,
to whom she addressed inspiring letters from prison in her last years.
She was never a feminist, sharing unashamedly in the distinctively
feminine experiences of being a companion and cook.136 But she
brought to the revolutionary movement a warmth of engagement without
self-indulgence that was generally foreign to male revolutionaries
in the nineteenth century-let alone to the dull functionaries of the
twentieth.

Rosa Luxemburg stood in a prophetic line of revolutionary women
who renounced both home and country in search of the promised land.
The list stretches from Etta Palm, a Dutch woman in Paris ; through
Flora Tristan, a Peruvian in Lyon ; to Saint-Simonians in Egypt; to Frances
Wright, the Scottish wife of a Frenchman on the American frontier;
to Russians in Switzerland, on to this Polish-Jewish leader who sought
to replicate the Russian Revolution in Germany.

Rosa Luxemburg was not j ust a prophet of revolution-of its failure
in Germany 137 and its deformation in Russia-but an embodiment
of revolutionary simplicity. Beyond all the words written by this most
articulate of all revolutionary journalists ,138 lay a simple faith beyond
reason-in transnational, proletarian perfectibility ; in violent struggle
as a creative process and prerequisite to victory; and in those original
myths of the revolutionary tradition : in an unfinished revolution and
a perfect natural order.

The essential vision that she affirmed in her life and validated by her
death is perhaps best contained in her description of the simple perfection
she once found on primitive Corsica. Islands had provided the
perennial locus of utopia, from the imagination of Thomas More to the
reality of Sand on Majorca or Garibaldi on C aprera. Luxemburg described
Corsica, where Buonarroti and Urbain had found inspiration, as an ideal
alternative “to the Europe of today,” a place to satisfy that deep desire
of revolutionaries to oprostit’sia : to simplify things. Writing from
prison to Sophie Liebknecht, Luxemburg recalled recovering “the silence
502 of the beginning of the world” amidst the rustic purity, and finding
the archetypical unspoiled “people” in a poor peas ant family that passed
silently by “precisely in harmony with the landscape.” She felt inspired
“to fall on my knees as I always feel compelled to do before some
spectacle of finished beauty.” 139 She proposed to Liebknecht that the
two women journey together to Corsica for a kind of pilgrimage of
renewal, reviving the original metaphor of the revolution as rising sun :
We must go there and . . . cover the whole island on foot, sleeping each
night in a new lodging place, greeting each morning along the way the rising
of the sun. l4o

But Luxemburg went instead from prison to a martyr’s death with
Liebknecht’s husband. She reaffirmed her faith in the ultimate victory
of revolution in her last written words, which returned to the older,
messianic metaphors of her Judaic heritage :

The revolution will “raise itself up again, clashing,” and . . . proclaim to
the sound of trumpets : I was, I am, I shall be.141
Such a passionate life and dramatic death left behind not just a
legend but a kind of haunting presence. When social revolutionaries
finally came to power in Germany, not spontaneously after World War
I but via the Russian army after World War II, the Stalinist regime
in East Germany tried in vain to represent itself as the vindication of
her hopes. l42 She had written shortly before her death that true victory
lay “not at the beginning but at the end of revolution .” 143 The
suspicion grew that that victory-and her revolution-was perhaps still
to come.

Some have seen posthumous vindication of her vision in the revived
invocation of her name during the late 1 9 6os and the early 1 970s : by
French and Italian student radicals, by female German terrorists, or by
admirers of new anti-imperialist movements in the third world and
the cultural revolution in Mao’s China. 141 But Luxemburg was a Eurocentric
believer in the spontaneous leadership of the modern industrial
proletariat. She may have found her most authentic reincarnation
within the proletariat in her native Poland. Only there had her memory
been deeply and continuously honored within a Soviet-dominated Communist
p arty. In December 1970, the Polish working classes spontaneously
rose in a m ass strike against bureaucratic despotism unguided
by any external political or intellectual elites in a move that surprised
both East and West. The strike produced in Poland the first forcible
change of political leadership by direct proletarian action in Europe
since 1 9 1 7.

The unexpected overthrow of Gomulka seemed a poetic vindication
of Rosa Luxemburg. The strike began in Szczecin on the border area
between the Polish and German worlds where she had spent much of her
life. It brought down a man who had just succeeded in expelling almost
the last of Luxemburg’s fellow Jews from that region in which they
had historically suffered so much. It was almost as if Rosa Luxemburg
had returned like the Dybbuk in a Jewish mystery play to take over
the body of a Polish worker and avenge the repudiated heritage of
Gomulka’s Jewish wife .

Could the revolutionary faith remain active at all within the neDauthoritarian,
post-revolutionary bureaucracies of Eastern Europe in the
late twentieth century? If that faith does survive or revive in those
lands where Rosa Luxemburg lived and died, it seems likely to be
moved by her ghost stalking the stalags of Stalinism and the dachas of
its directors . To them, she can speak of forgotten dreams-reminding
them that a Jewish woman once argued that Poles should unite with
Russians for their common good ; that Germans would benefit from
revolution in Russia; and that social revolution would directly abolish
both the national identities and the authoritarian controls that repress
the creativity of working people themselves.

It’s the sensuous female, the goddess-like or holy woman, passionate in nature and voice who is ultimately wanted, especially from the East. Even more convenient if she likes White men. Having a social conscience is a default necessary characteristic.

Like I’ve said all my life and still say: NO.
Any yes you might ever get out of me will not undo those NO’s.

I’m not interested in game playing, in revolutions, in the status quo etc. Oh I care, just I have a different vantage point, I have real senses. When you pretend to ‘help’ people you’re really continuing the parry between ‘light’ and ‘dark’ and faux ‘good’ and ‘evil’ which is all just protocol.

I’m not goddess-like, even you believe I am the Goddess, and others believe I’m at least from the Goddess hence you’re desperate to be to breed with me or at least have some recognizable connection. The thing is though, you have no status to begin with. Your bonds/links/connections/status mean nothing except stupid signs/agreements between yourselves and the masses who would like to be part of the gang if the opportunity came up.

The South American woman most recently shown to me for me to be, whilst she was listening to me ‘singing’ on the radio (and all on a boat) with a Prince/Soldier conveniently modelled on the looks I find attractive and with a name from my past.

Add that to Dora from ‘Memnock the Devil’ (after losing out on the Pandora role) from earlier based on and yes I got it, Immalee turned Isidora after she became ‘his’ (and you’re wanting to go the ‘immaculate conception’ route this time to keep it ‘pure’ when really all that means is inter-species relationship and sometimes necessary to make the same as or similar to the other to increase the chances) and you’re hanging on desperately to false hope.

Opera is supposed to be false entertainment not real life.

Doretta’s beautiful dream
Who could Doretta’s beautiful dream
ever guess?
Her mystery how come it’s never
how come it’s never ending

Alas! One day a student
kisses her on the lips
and it was such a kss
revelation:
It was passion!
Crazy love!
Crazy intoxication!
Who could this subtle carress
of such flaming a kiss
ever describe;

Ah! my dream!

Ah! my life!

Who cares about riches
if it finally flourishes
happiness!
Oh golden dream
to be able to love like this!

Stop trying to make the Daughter into the Mother (like with Doretta and Magda like Magdalene) in every way in every level in reality/fictional reality so that one becomes the other, affects the other, merge and hide your machinations. Becoming the dream doesn’t make a damned difference when the effects are the same, nothing gets better, exactly how you want it.

I don’t need to listen to offers before rejecting them, you’ve already been judged. You made your own noose.

She and I represent many, All. I am both the fallen and the divine, the worst and the best, the weakest and the strongest, the most vulnerable and the most protected, and hence I became the most exposed and most shielded. A mind that wanders, travels through worlds and befriends many, overcoming differences and understanding the mutual pain and wishes, able to communicate. A body that doesn’t give up, that endures. I became the new a long time ago but stayed old at the same time. The future became the past, the collective consciousness open to me and me to it. And yet I remained individual whilst connected, a living representation. I salute the dead, the lost, the living and the others. That makes me a candidate but you rubbed your hands with glee to find out I had real access/real ‘lineage’ unlike your offspring and amalgamations (I keep telling you the godsoul/spirit isn’t inherited or invoked so you’d settle for basic format connections like marriage or parenthood but that means nothing too, relations/ships mean nothing when it comes to your evil, yep Evil.) You should be careful what you wish for, what I have access to has no more patience, no more tolerance, no forgiving nor forgetting and They don’t want you at all. I am from the tree, the tree that is far and wide, beyond borders, beyond time, and it will not tolerate you; the children, the ‘schoolmasters’ ‘watchers’ ‘guardians’ ‘architects’ (i.e. workers who gave themselves airs and graces to lord it up over the planet on all levels), the false ‘creators’. I’m not afraid of what’s in the sky nor here in your face if you can sense enough. You are.

It’s all a farce anyway, so many of the people ‘for’ and ‘against’ it’s mostly infighting and trying to climb over each other on the ladder – what is the point? They’re very mostly guilty. But still, it matters/not a joke to the people who believe/go through it. *Sigh* That picture of Renzi… Jeez Louise, the size of it in the original article as well *shakes head* like he’s god’s gift or something and then with the flags *rolls eyes*.

Which reminds me, on the site where we reside, right behind the old caravan we temporarily inhabited there’s one with a flagpole; it usually displays the English or a pirate flag (same difference) but since my post with the Alabama song and St George Cross it’s been changing.

Oh and yeah Verdini might not be doing the mudra that became the ‘devil’s horns’ there but it was just funny, and I needed a laugh hence my comment.

Italy’s judicial shakeup caught in political conflicts of interest

By Crispian Balmer and Gavin Jones

Filed June 30, 2016, 10:30 a.m. GMT

http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/italy-justice/

Prime Minister Renzi says he will overhaul Italy’s dysfunctional justice system. But politicians who stand to benefit from the status quo oppose any change.

ROME – Denis Verdini once told a group of friends there were three types of people he did not like: cardinals, policemen and judges. “Because they all tell you what to do,” he said, according to someone present.

Prosecutors have ordered the silver-haired Italian politician to stand trial six times since 2014 in an array of cases involving alleged graft and alleged financial wrongdoing. Verdini has denied all the charges against him.

The first trial, which revolved around allegations of irregularity over the awarding of a contract to build a police school in Florence, ended in March in a guilty verdict and a two-year prison term for Verdini.

He says he will appeal the sentence, but the outcome may not matter: Under Italy’s statute of limitations, which imposes deadlines on courts to complete legal proceedings, the case will automatically be shut down this summer.

Italy’s justice system has long been one of the most dysfunctional in Europe, especially when it comes to alleged white-collar criminals like Verdini. Prosecutors say it is all but impossible to reach a definitive verdict for a multitude of financial crimes within the prescribed time frame, which is seldom more than eight years. That’s partly because legal cases take so long in Italy. But it is also because Italy is unique in Europe: Its statute of limitations starts from the moment an alleged crime is committed rather than from the point it is discovered, and the time limit is not extended when a defendant is put under investigation or indicted or sentenced. No other country has both rules.

Lack of Punishment for White Collar Crime in Europe

Prime Minister Matteo Renzi has promised to overhaul the sclerotic justice system and his coalition has already made some changes, including cutting the amount of holiday that magistrates can take, lengthening prison sentences for bribery and increasing legal costs to try to limit frivolous litigation.

But a determined group of politicians, including the powerful Verdini, is blocking more far-reaching reform, including to the statute of limitations. This conflict of interest is fueling a fierce confrontation between the judiciary and the government.

According to website L’incredibile Parlamento Italiano, more than 90 Italian parliamentarians – almost one in 10 – have either already benefitted from the statute of limitations or are currently on trial or under investigation for white-collar crimes and misdemeanours, many of which have a short judicial shelf-life.

The prime minister has pledged to break the deadlock before the August summer recess but has not said how. Because his Democratic Party does not have a majority in the 315-seat upper house Senate, it needs Verdini’s 19 senators to get any justice reforms approved.

POWER BROKER: Denis Verdini, shown here in 2010, supports Renzi’s government but opposes most judicial reforms. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi [Almost telling us he needs he has blocked bowels?]

POWER BROKER: Denis Verdini, shown here in 2010, supports Renzi’s government but opposes most judicial reforms. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi [Almost telling us he has blocked bowels?]

“The politicians haven’t stopped stealing. They’ve stopped being ashamed of it.”
Pier Camillo Davigo, head of Italy’s Magistrates Association

Verdini, who leads the Popular and Liberal Alliance for local Autonomy (ALA), declined to be interviewed for this article. His ally Lucio Barani, the ALA’s parliamentary leader, told Reuters the party was opposed to extending the statute of limitations because it would leave defendants in judicial limbo for too long.

“We represent the sovereign people. Only demagogues and the enemies of politics lengthen the statute of limitations,” said Barani, who himself benefitted from the procedural cut-off in 2012 in a case in which he was accused of abusing his powers as mayor of the small Tuscan town of Aulla. He is also on trial for alleged embezzlement in another case likely to be wiped out by the statute of limitations. He denies all the charges against him.

Only 286 people are serving time in Italian jails for white-collar offences compared with 7,986 in Germany, according to the Council of Europe, a democracy and human rights watchdog. This is despite the fact that according to Transparency International only Bulgaria in the 28-nation European Union has a worse problem with corruption than Italy.

Nicola Gratteri, chairman of a committee on judicial reform set up by Renzi in 2014, says around three-quarters of all trials for non-violent or non-drugs-related crimes expire before the appeals process is exhausted.

“In Italy there is a generalised spirit of indulgence to allow the guilty to go unpunished … no one seriously believes in penal sanctions,” says Pier Camillo Davigo, the head of Italy’s powerful Magistrates Association, who made his name in the “Clean Hands” corruption investigations of the early 1990s that swept away an entire political class.

Davigo said corruption had got worse since then. “The politicians haven’t stopped stealing,” he said. “They’ve stopped being ashamed of it.”

THE PUPPET MASTER

Always elegantly turned out in crisp suits and ties, Verdini likes to play by his own rules.

He comes from a modest background. To pay his way through university and a subsequent course to become an accountant, he sold meat wholesale, earning himself the nickname “the butcher.”

Through his second wife, Simonetta Fossombroni, who comes from a noble Tuscan family, Verdini gained access to the highest echelons of Italian society and, in the 1990s, entry into billionaire media mogul Silvio Berlusconi’s new centre-right party, Forza Italia (Go Italy!).

Verdini was elected to parliament in 2001 and grabbed Berlusconi’s attention by giving him a painting as a present, said a former political ally, who declined to be named. Verdini quickly became Berlusconi’s numbers man in parliament, making sure he had enough votes to turn bills into law, including controversial items such as the decriminalisation of false accounting and shortening the statute of limitations to make it even harder for prosecutors to secure verdicts for many white-collar crimes.

As Berlusconi’s fortunes faded – he resigned as prime minister in 2011 – Verdini also suffered setbacks. He broke with Berlusconi last July and pledged support for Renzi, a fellow Tuscan.

Perhaps the most serious case Verdini faces revolves around the 2010 collapse of Credito Cooperativo Fiorentino, a bank where he served as chairman for 20 years. Prosecutors say he used the bank to build up a powerbase that helped him in politics. They say he offered loans to friends and associates without proper guarantees – loans that ultimately undermined the bank, they allege. The bank case carries a statute of limitations of around 20 years that will almost certainly not expire before a definitive verdict is reached – a relative rarity in Italy.

“The bank was used to create a personal power system. It essentially made Verdini become the person he became,” said an experienced prosecutor involved in several investigations into the senator.

Verdini has said he did no wrong. In April, he told a Florence court hearing in the case that he was misunderstood: “I am made out to be a little devil, but in reality, I have always acted correctly and in respect of the norms established in the law.”

In a separate case Verdini is accused of belonging to a secretive lobbying group known as Propaganda Tre. Prosecutors say the organisation plotted in 2009 to lean on Constitutional Court judges before they ruled on a measure to grant Berlusconi and others legal immunity. That case is in court; the next hearing is due in July. Verdini’s lawyers say he is innocent.

TO THE LIMIT

Italy’s statute of limitations in criminal cases is designed to protect defendants from persecution by the state.

“A fundamental purpose of government is to create a judicial system that produces efficient, fair, and predictable results.”
John Phillips, U.S. Ambassador to Italy

But in Italy, the time limits work quite differently to the way they do in other rich countries. In France, for example, the time allowed for a case is stopped and re-set at 10 years every time a judge takes any action – an indictment or a summons, say – which shows the state is still interested in reaching a verdict.

In the United States there is no time limit once a defendant is sent to trial, which means they have no interest in dragging out proceedings. In Britain there is no limit as soon as police open investigations into a suspect.

In Italy, though, the clock starts when a crime is committed and keeps ticking until the statute of limitations runs out. That gives every incentive for a defendant to prolong proceedings, according to lawyers.

The rules are different in civil cases, where it’s almost impossible to run down the clock – and politicians opposed to reforming the penal code point to the endless proceedings in the civil courts as an argument for maintaining current time limits on criminal cases.

But reformers say the scales are weighted too heavily in favour of the accused. Even after a guilty verdict at the initial trial, defendants are allowed two appeals and are considered innocent until the final court ruling is delivered. For financial crimes, where wrongdoing is often not discovered for years, there is then little time left to secure three guilty verdicts before the case expires.

“Finance police only investigate tax returns with a four year delay,” making it close to impossible to convict people for things like tax fraud, said Florence prosecutor Luca Turco, who is leading the case against Verdini over the bank collapse.

EFFICIENT, FAIR AND PREDICTABLE?

Italy’s courts have a backlog of eight million cases – 4.5 million in the civil system and 3.5 million in the penal tribunals, according to the Justice Ministry. Over the past 11 years, the statute of limitations law has seen 1.68 million cases thrown out.

[It's not just Italy, look at the state of that table.]

[It’s not just Italy, look at the state of that table.]

“Lawyers make their money from litigation so most of them advise against mediation,” said Raffaele Rotondaro, a lawyer in Rome. Of around 25 cases in which his clients had attempted mediation, not one had reached a successful conclusion.

To speed up the justice system, Rotondaro suggests hiring more judges. As a proportion of its population, Italy has one of the lowest number of judges in the EU, according to the European Commission. At the same time, it has some 237,000 registered lawyers, or 370 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest rates in the bloc. France has fewer than 100, Germany around 200.

But Italy’s creaking public finances can ill afford to pay for thousands of new judges. And streamlining the system – by, for example, eliminating the automatic right of appeal – would hit lawyers’ profits and could make thousands unemployed.

“Can you imagine any prime minister actually taking on the lawyers?” said the chief magistrate Davigo. “It’s never going to happen.”

Economists say the dysfunctional justice system is a huge drag on growth – as serious as better-known problems such as Italy’s massive public debt.

U.S. ambassador to Italy John Phillips makes the comparison between Italy’s Supreme Court, which ruled on 77,628 penal and civil cases in 2015 and has 140,541 cases pending, to the U.S. Supreme court which typically makes around 80 rulings a year.

“A fundamental purpose of government is to create a judicial system that produces efficient, fair, and predictable results,” Phillips told students in a speech in Milan in April. “Does Italy have this? Many potential investors have told me that, simply put, the answer to that question is ‘no.’ And that is the number one reason why they decide against investing in Italy.”

CHANGE: Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, here at a June press conference, has promised to overhaul the justice system but faces serious opposition. REUTERS/Tony Gentile [LOL what a ridiculous photo]

CHANGE: Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, here at a June press conference, has promised to overhaul the justice system but faces serious opposition. REUTERS/Tony Gentile [LOL what a ridiculous photo]